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 blackedoutthroughwhitewashp2   Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization   

 African History on the Internet - Kingdoms and Ancient Civilizations

  Correcting_Rewritten_History   MindStation X : Renaissance   

  Dr. Ivan Van Sertima

  Italy - Italian Renaissance - Zoological studies    Re: For Sale: A DNA Test to Measure Racial Mix

   KAM Africans in Early Europe   The TRUE Black History Home Page  

 European Crusades, Christianisation, and Colonisation West Africa

 William Greaves: Documenting The Truth In Film - Global Black News ...

African Contributions to World History   Sephardim and their History  The Iberian Golden Age, European Expansion

 Origins of Islamic Intolerence by Mark Silverberg   African American and Ancient Egyptians

  ANCIENT AFRICA AND EARLY ROME     The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Chapter II

   Great Homepage of Alexander, or Something Like That    Alexander The Great - Links

Alexander the Great on the Web     Alexander the Great History Project    Alexander was Great

The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe   History Timelines on the Web ... The History Beat

Information and facts about Cleopatra   History of Alexandria: Cleopatra  

 Queen Cleopatra - Last Pharaoh of Egypt - Queen Cleopatra VII    Raising the lost city of Cleopatra


 The House of Ptolemy: Caesar, Cleopatra, & Marcus Antonius  THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND

The Moors in Europe   Moor Info  Latin American Muslim Unity: History of Islam in Latin America

Adolf Hitler  Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler   Adolf Hitler   Adolf Hitler Table of Contents 

Hitler's Jewish Soldiers  Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust  Hitler Was Not An Atheist

 WAS HITLER A ROTHSCHILD      | The controversy of the occult reich   IS AMERICA

WALL STREET AND THE RISE OF HITLER   Hitler's Christianity   African Timelines Part II

 The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives

Hitler's Rise to Power   The OMEGA File : HITLER ESCAPED  Henry the Navigator

Dr Edward Scobie: African Presence in Early Britian: Dominica political figure

The African Presence in the Americas many centuries before Columbus



 The Zulu Appropriation of the Imperial: The Imperial, The Colonial, and the creation of "White" Power

 The Great Boer War by Arthur Conan Doyle 1


 A HISTORY OF THE WORLD - NI 196 - Carving up the world  

 South Africa  

 History 386: The Military and War in America--Lecture Outlines  

 THE MIND THINKING OF HITLER Hitler's Religious Beliefs and Fanaticism

 Arcanacon 1800's: 1800s timeline

 Multiculti             http://www.harunyahya.com/fascism3.php

 The Future Of African Gods: The Clash Of Civilizations







Remember that there is no such thing as a "Latin" nation, race, or ethnic group---there is only the racist colonial term of "Latin America" ("Latino" just means Latin in Spanish) which refers to the colonialists and the colonial possessions of the Europeans of southern Europe (Spaniards, Portuguese, and French) in the "Western Hemisphere" (our land). The only thing "Latin" about our land is the 500 years of racist colonialism that has killed 95% of our population, and the theft of our land and its wealth.

"Latino" denies us our true Nican Tlaca (Indigenous) identity and heritage. It keeps us slaves to European interests and Spaniard culture.

Collectively, we have no Latin genealogy, Latin blood group, Latin history, or a common Latin culture of food or mythology.

The "Latino" labeling of our people is a colonialist-racist act of Genocide---an attempt to "kill off" our people's true identity, history, independence, and our rights to our land and its wealth. Notice how this is not about "Latino Americans" in the U.S. This is about all of the "Spanish speaker" European Spaniards and their colonies of Nican Tlaca and Africans in the "Americas". What they are in fact doing is separating us from our Anahuac Heritage (Mexican and "Central American" Nican Tlaca identity and history) and enslaving us to their needs.

THE CONCEPT OF HISPANIC is even more racist than "Latino" because it completely denies us our true Nican Tlaca heritage by not even referring to our colonized condition of being in "Latin America". We now become direct possessions of Spaniards. This is an attempt (successful so far) to actively reactivate the Spanish colonial empire through their colonials on our land. The media is their main tool in this parasitic renewed colonialist machine of the European Spaniards.

A side note: A Mixed-blood is not a Criollo or a European.


Spaniards, Europeans, And Their Squatter Descendants On Our Land Who Force Their Eurocentric, Racist, & Anti-Indigenous "Hispanic" & "Latino" Labels On Our People!
Eurocentric, Racist, & Anti-Indigenous Cuban-Miami Television & Mexico City Criollos (White People) Who Control Our Knowledge, Identity & Future!
Eurocentric, Racist, & Anti-Indigenous Concepts of "Mestizo" & "Raza" That Enslave Our People To European Interests & Identities!
The Europeans And Their Descendants Who Have Denied Us The Beauty Of Our True Anahuac Heritage And The Ownership Of The Wealth Of Our Land!




1) THEFT OF OUR LAND was the initial crime of the Europeans. We did not ever give up the ownership of our land, nor did we ever invite Europeans onto our lands.
by Europeans (along with the violation of our laws) and their unethical and immoral behavior, were what brought about their taking of our land, the genocide of our people, the enslavement of our remaining population, and all of their uncountable crimes against us.
3) RACIST TERRORISM has been the European method that was used to shock us into submitting to their control of our land and our lives.
4) PIRACY (looting, taking what is not yours to take) has been the European profession of choice by which they stole our people's wealth of precious jewels, gold, silver, and other valuables, along with the wealth of our land.
5) VANDALISM has been another signature of European barbaric assaults on our civilization and culture. This defacement was done upon our physical landscape and upon the psychological well-being of our people.
6) KIDNAPPING of our people (as a prelude to extortion and /or enslavement) has been a violation of all nations' sense of decency, law, and civilized behavior.
7) EXTORTION (usually for gold) from our lands has been another favorite crime of the Europeans. They mostly killed their victims, even when ransom was paid.
8) MURDER OF OUR LEADERS was a peculiarly vicious and dishonorable ongoing crime of Europeans. This crime exhibited the total failure of a sense of honor amongst the Europeans. Deceit was usually involved in the murder of our leaders.
9) MASSACRES of unarmed civilian men, women, and children on our lands. This at first happened in the dozens, then hundreds, and eventually it led to routine slaughters in the thousands.
10) GENOCIDE of our people became possible when they discovered that they had built-in biological weapons of mass destruction in their bodies' exposure to smallpox and other diseases---for which we had no immune defenses. They used this biological weapon which was 90 to 98% effective in killing us.
11) TORTURE AND MUTILATION was initially used to get us to surrender all gold objects to Europe. This technique was later used by the church to force conversions and to get confessions out of our people.
12) GRAVE ROBBERY has been an ongoing habit of Europeans from the beginning. This was a way of quickly stealing wealth that was not guarded.
13) ENSLAVEMENT OF OUR PEOPLE to do the work that they were too lazy to do themselves, has been another nasty European habit.
14) DESTRUCTION OF CITIES to take away our pride in our heritage, has been an almost totally successful European crime.
15) BURNING LIBRARY BOOKS in the tens of thousands by Europeans, has been one of the most devastating crimes that can never be mended or reconstructed.
16) UNIVERSITIES & SCHOOLS DESTROYED as a means of enslaving us to ignorance and to serving the interests of Europeans.
17) RACIAL RAPE of our people defiled us as a nation and tainted our people with the filth of their racism that says: More European blood is better.
18) CULTURAL CASTRATION in which laws were decreed that prohibited our people from learning our own culture, our languages, or even the simplicity of having our true names and identity.
19) PROHIBITION OF OUR THEOLOGY which forced the hypocritical version of Christianity on our people.
20) CONTINUATIONS OF THESE CRIMES up to the present day without guilt, reparations, or the "reality thought" that Europeans were in any way evil or monstrous in their actions.

 Let's put the movie itself aside for a second and set the record straight
 about this one thing we call our "identity". Many people around the world
 refer to those of us who come from certain parts of the Carribean,
 Central, & South America as "Latin, Latino, Latin American, Hispanic, and
 even Spanish". Most of them identify us that way simply out of respect for
 "us" because we identify ourselves that way. So i will now take a moment

 We ARE NOT, NOR HAVE WE EVER BEEN "Latin"! Point Blank! And I am speaking
 here for myself and those like me.

 Director, Mel Gibson, gives his staff their "due" respect and shouts them
 out in his promotional interviews about the movie by sayin' something like
"behind the scenes and in front of the camera in this film are mostly
 Latinos"... Mind you, he is refering to the indegenous peoples of Central
 America here. INDIANS for those of us who will only understand it this

 I invite you to see this movie, then take a good look at the actors in it
 and strip them down to their birthday suits... Then be honest and look at
 yourself and your family... and what you will notice is that in the movie
 APOCALYPTO you see your mothers, your fathers, your grandmothers,
 grandfathers, your aunts, your uncles, your cousins, your nieces, and your
 nephews! Just give the sisters a 2007 makeover, and give the brothas a
 shapeup, a fitted, some sean jean or rockawear - and you will never tell
 the difference, simply because there is NONE! We are the children of the
 indigenous peoples of America, as well as Africa and its all over our
 children's faces, not to mention our own - and nowhere in precolumbian

 Latin was the official language of the Roman Empire which eventually
 became what we now know as Spanish, Portuges, French, and YES ITALIAN for
 those of you who complain about there being no Latinos in Scarface
 ("except Manolo")... They were ALL LATINOS, AL PACINO IS ITALIAN... ITALY,
 ROME, LATIN! HELLLLLOOOOO! What they weren't, was US!

 They invaded Boriken, raped the land of its riches for themselves at our
 expence and renamed it PUERTO RICO - so someone please tell me, a Taino
 from Boriken where i fit in this to identify myself as a Puerto Rican....

 A DOMINICAN is a CATHOLIC PRIEST, one of the many orders of the ROMAN
 CATHOLIC CHURCH such as the JESUITS and FRANSISCANS... so someone please
 tell me how an African and Indian became Dominican.

 The same goes for COLUMBIA and a host of others.... even those who kept
 their indigenous roots in their names to nevertheless become LATIN


 It does not take any schollarly investigation, research or academia to see
 the children and lineage of indigenous peoples in the Carribean... all we
 have to do is look in the mirror and/ or take a trip over there and look
 at the people there!

 Land And Water



Come experience the power, the glory, the splendor, the greatness, the intelligence and the beauty of Great African Queens, the makers and creators of the world first known high civilizations.

AMINA QUEEN Of ZARIA (1588-1589)
This queen of Zazzua, a province of Nigeria now known as Zaria, was born around 1533 during the reign of Sarkin (king) Zazzau Nohir. She was probably his granddaughter. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. Its wealth was due to trade of mainly leather goods, cloth, kola, salt, horses and imported metals. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother's reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Her main focus, however, was not on annexation of neighboring lands, but on forcing local rulers to accept vassal status and permit Hausa traders safe passage. She is credited with popularizing the earthen city wall fortifications, which became characteristic of Hausa city-states since then. She ordered building of a defensive wall around each military camp that she established. Later, towns grew within these protective walls, many of which are still in existence. They're known as "ganuwar Amina", or Amina's walls. She is mostly remembered as "Amina, Yar Bakwa ta san rana," meaning "Amina, daughter of Nikatau, a woman as capable as a man.
Contributed by Danuta Bois

Alexander reached Kemet (Ancient Egypt) in 332 B.C., on his world conquering rampage. But one of the greatest generals of the ancient world was also the Empress of Ethiopia. This formidable black Queen Candace, was world famous as a military tactician and field commander. Legend has it that Alexander could not entertain even the possibilty of having his world fame and unbroken chain of victories marred by risking a defeat, at last, by a woman. He halted his armies at the borders of Ethiopia and did not invade to meet the waiting black armies with their Queen in personal command.

CLEOPATRA VII QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the Blacks) (69-30 B.C)
Although known to be of African descent she is still deliberately portrayed as being white. She came to power at the tender age of seventeen and the most popular of seven queens to have had this name. She was also known to be a great linguist and was instumental in making Kemet(Egypt) into the world number one super power at that time.

She fought against the Arab incursion in North Africa where under her leadership Africans fought back fiercely and drove the Arab army northward into Tripolitania. Queen Kahina was of the Hebrew faith and she never abandoned her religion. Her opposition to the Arab incursion was purely nationalistic, since she favored neither Christians nor Moslems. Her death in 705 A.D by Hassen-ben-Numam ended one of the most violet attempts to save Africa for the Africans. She prevented Islam's southward spread into the Western Sudan. After her death the Arabs began to change their strategy in advancing their faith and their power in Africa. The resistance to the southward spread of Islam was so great in some areas that some of the wives of African kings committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands of the Berbers and Arabs who showed no mercy to the people who would not be converted to Islam

HATSHEPSUT QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the blacks) (1503-1482 B.C.)
One of the greatest queens of ancient Kemet was Queen Hatshepsut. While she was known as a "warrior" queen, her battles were engaged with her own rivals for the position of power in Kemetic hierarchy. A born dynast in her own right, Hatshepsut proved to be an aggressive and overpowering force. However, it was not in war, but in her aspiration to ascend to the "Heru (Horus) consciousness," she displayed the strength that has given her a place in history. She adopted the Truth of Maat and became involved in the elimination of undesirable people and elements from Kemet. Determined to be revered in times yet to come, Hatshepsut depicted herself in as many masculine attributes as possible, i.e. male attire, king’s beard, etc. Although she ascended to the throne upon the death of her king-brother Thutmose II, she exerted her rightful claim to the throne. In exercising her power, she involved herself in foreign campaigns, a concentration on domestic affairs, extensive building and commercial ventures. The most famous of her commercial ventures was the Punt expedition in which goods and produce were acquired from the rich market there to be brought back to Kemet. While it would appear that her opponents were not antagonistic regarding her sex, they were so regarding her non-aggressive philosophy.

Even before becoming legal ruler, Hatshepsut, was actively pushing things dearest to the hearts of all Africans leaders: the expansion of foreign trade, international diplomatic relations, perfection of national defense, vast public building programs, securing the South and the North through either peace or war and, one of her "pet projects", building a great navy for both commerce and war. Her success on most of these fronts made her one of the giants of the race.

MAKEDA QUEEN OF SHEBA (The symbol of Beauty) (960 B.C.)
am black but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon, Look not upon me because I am black Because the sun hath scorched me." (Song of Solomon)
Although most of Black history is suppressed, distorted or ignored by an ungrateful modern world, some African traditions are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the Western academic establishment have failed to stamp them out. One such story is that of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Israel. Black women of antiquity were legendary for their beauty and power. Especially great were the Queens of Ethiopia. This nation was also known as Nubia, Kush, Axum and Sheba. One thousand years before Christ, Ethiopia was ruled by a line of virgin queens. The one whose story has survived into our time was known as Makeda, "the Queen of Sheba." Her remarkable tradition was recorded in the Kebar Nagast, or the Glory of Kings, and the Bible. The Bible tells us that, during his reign, King Solomon of Israel decided to build a magnificent temple. To announce this endeavor, the king sent forth messengers to various foreign countries to invite merchants from abroad to come to Jerusalem with their caravans so that they might engage in trade there. At this time, Ethiopia was second only to Egypt in power and fame. Hence, King Solomon was enthralled by Ethiopia's beautiful people, rich history, deep spiritual tradition and wealth. He was especially interested in engaging in commerce with one of Queen Makeda's subjects, an important merchant by the name of Tamrin.1 Solomon sent for Tamrin who "packed up stores of valuables including ebony, sapphires and red gold, which he took to Jerusalem to sell to the king."2 It turns out that Tamrin's visit was momentous. Although accustomed to the grandeur and luxury of Egypt and Ethiopia, Tamrin was still impressed by King Solomon and his young nation. During a prolonged stay in Israel, Tamrin observed the magnificent buildings and was intrigued by the Jewish people and their culture. But above all else, he was deeply moved by Solomon's wisdom and compassion for his subjects. Upon returning to his country, Tamrin poured forth elaborate details about his trip to Queen Makeda. She was so impressed by the exciting story that the great queen decided to visit King Solomon herself.3 To understand the significance of state visits in antiquity in contrast to those of today, we must completely remove ourselves from the present place and time. In ancient times, royal visits were very significant ceremonial affairs. The visiting regent was expected to favor the host with elaborate gifts and the state visit might well last for weeks or even months. Even by ancient standards, however, Queen Makeda's visit to King Solomon was extraordinary. In I Kings 10:1-2, the Bible tells us: "1. And when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions. "2. And she came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bear spices and very much gold, and precious stones. And when she was come to Solomon she communed with him of all that was in her heart." I Kings 10:10 adds: "She gave the king 120 talents of gold, and of spices very great store and precious stones; there came no more such abundance of spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon." We should pause to consider the staggering sight of this beautiful Black woman and her vast array of resplendent attendants travelling over the Sahara desert into Israel with more than 797 camels plus donkeys and mules too numerous to count. The value of the gold alone, which she gave to King Solomon, would be $3,690,000 today and was of much greater worth in antiquity. King Solomon, and undoubtedly the Jewish people, were flabbergasted by this great woman and her people. He took great pains to accommodate her every need. A special apartment was built for her lodging while she remained in his country. She was also provided with the best of food and eleven changes of garments daily. As so many African leaders before her, this young maiden, though impressed with the beauty of Solomon's temple and his thriving domain, had come to Israel seeking wisdom and the truth about the God of the Jewish people. Responding to her quest for knowledge, Solomon had a throne set up for the queen beside his. "It was covered with silken carpets, adorned with fringes of gold and silver, and studded with diamonds and pearls. From this she listened while he delivered judgments."4 Queen Makeda also accompanied Solomon throughout his kingdom. She observed the wise, compassionate and spiritual ruler as he interacted with his subjects in everyday affairs. Speaking of the value of her visit with the King and her administration for him, Queen Makeda stated: "My Lord, how happy I am. Would that I could remain here always, if but as the humblest of your workers, so that I could always hear your words and obey you.

"How happy I am when I interrogate you! How happy when you answer me. My whole being is moved with pleasure; my soul is filled; my feet no longer stumble; I thrill with delight.
"Your wisdom and goodness," she continued, "are beyond all measure. They are excellence itself. Under your influence I am placing new values on life. I see light in the darkness; the firefly in the garden reveals itself in newer beauty. I discover added lustre in the pearl; a greater radiance in the morning star, and a softer harmony in the moonlight. Blessed be the God that brought me here; blessed be He who permitted your majestic mind to be revealed to me; blessed be the One who brought me into your house to hear your voice.
Solomon had a harem of over 700 wives and concubines, yet, he was enamored by the young Black virgin from Ethiopia. Although he held elaborate banquets in her honor and wined, dined and otherwise entertained her during the length of her visit, they both knew that, according to Ethiopian tradition, the Queen must remain chaste. Nevertheless, the Jewish monarch wished to plant his seed in Makeda, so that he might have a son from her regal African lineage. To this end the shrewd king conspired to conquer the affection of this young queen with whom he had fallen in love. When, after six months in Israel, Queen Makeda announced to King Solomon that she was ready to return to Ethiopia, he invited her to a magnificent farewell dinner at his palace. The meal lasted for several hours and featured hot, spicy foods that were certain to make all who ate thirsty and sleepy (as King Solomon had planned.) Since the meal ended very late, the king invited Queen Makeda to stay overnight in the palace in his quarters. She agreed as long as they would sleep in separate beds and the king would not seek to take advantage of her. He vowed to honor her chastity, but also requested that she not take anything in the palace. Outraged by such a suggestion, the Queen protested that she was not a thief and then promised as requested. Not long after the encounter, the Queen, dying of thirst, searched the palace for water. Once she found a large water jar and proceeded to drink, the King startled her by stating: "You have broken your oath that you would not take anything by force that is in my palace. The Queen protested, of course, that surely the promise did not cover something so insignificant and plentiful as water, but Solomon argued that there was nothing in the world more valuable than water, for without it nothing could live. Makeda reluctantly admitted the truth of this and apologized for her mistake, begging for water for her parched throat. Solomon, now released from his promise, assuaged her thirst and his own, immediately taking the Queen as his lover."6 The following day as the Queen and her entourage prepared to leave Israel, the King placed a ring on her hand and stated, "If you have a son, give this to him and send him to me." After returning to the land of Sheba, Queen Makeda did indeed have a son, whom she named Son-of-the-wise-man, and reared as a prince and her heir apparent to the throne. Upon reaching adulthood, the young man wished to visit his father, so the Queen prepared another entourage, this time headed by Tamrin. She sent a message to Solomon to anoint their son as king of Ethiopia and to mandate that thenceforth only the males descended from their son should rule Sheba. Solomon and the Jewish people rejoiced when his son arrived in Israel. The king anointed him as the Queen had requested and renamed him Menelik, meaning "how handsome he is." Though Solomon had many wives, only one had produced a son, Rehoboam, a boy of seven. So the king begged Menelik to remain, but the young prince would not. Solomon therefore called his leaders and nobles and announced that, since he was sending his first born son back to Ethiopia, he wanted all of them to send their firstborn sons "to be his counselors and officers." And they agreed to do so. Menelik asked his father for a relic of the Ark of the Covenant to take back with him to the land of Sheba. It is said that while Solomon intended to provide his son with a relic, the sons of the counselors, angry at having to leave their homes and go to Sheba with Menelik, actually stole the real Ark and took it to Ethiopia. Menelik returned to Sheba and, according to tradition, ruled wisely and well. And his famous line has continued down to the 20th century when, even now, the ruler of Ethiopia is the "conquering lion of Judah" descended directly from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
Written by Legrand H. Clegg II

NANDI QUEEN OF ZULULAND (Symbol of a woman of high esteem) (1778-1826)
Mother of the great leader Shaka Zulu. Nandi is the evalasting symbol of hard work patience and determination. She withstood and overcame many obsticles to raise to a position of power in all Zululand.

NEFERTARI QUEEN OF KEMET (the land of the Blacks) (1292-1225 B.C)
Her marriage to the great Rameses II of lower Ancient Egypt is known as one of the greatest royal love affair ever. This marriage also brought an end to the hundred year war between upper and lower ancient Kemet (Egypt), which in essence unified both sections into one great Kemet which was the world leading country. Monuments of this love affair still remains today in the temples that Rameses built for his wife at Abu Simbel.

The immense structures known as the two temples of Abu Simbel are among the most magnificent monuments in the world. Built during the New Kingdom nearly 3,000 years ago, it was hewn from the mountain which contains it as an everlasting dedication to King Ramses and his wife Nefertari. Superb reliefs on the temple detail the Battle of Kadesh, and Ramses and Nefertari consorting with the deities and performing religous rituals. The rays of the sun still penetrate to the Holy of Holies in the rock of the main temple on the same two days of the year: the 20th of October and the 20th of Febuary. This timing is probably connected to the symbolic unification, via the rays of the sun, of the statue of Ra-Herakhty and the statue of Ramses II. Up to today these structures remains as the largest, most majestic structures ever built to honor a wife.


NEFERTITI QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the Blacks)

It is believe by some historians that Nefertiti was the daughter of Aye and Tiy, while other claims her as the oldest daughter of Amenhotep III. Nefertiti was married to Akhenaten the originated of the one god concept(monotheism) as it became known today. During the early life of Nefertiti she lived in a Kemet where a new model of human nature in relation to god was emerging. This belief considered man primarily has a material entity, whose happiness was measured by his ability to acquire and maintain a material heaven(wealth and pleasure). In this material heaven women were not principals that predicted or participated in social policy, but were objects of sensuality or objects to be used by men. As weaker members of this paradise women could not be participants in its building. This belief was completely contrary to the beliefs of the ancients and the principles of Ma'at. Akhenaten developed another model. The nature of his new religion was that Aton represented by the Sun was the sole god and creator of all life.

Nefertiti could not relegate herself to the traditional role of subservient-queen. She envisioned an active role for herself in reshaping civilization. This was later manifested as she is shown participating in all the religious ceremonies with Akhenaten. It was only through the combined royal pair that the god Aton's full blessing could be bestowed. Nefertiti is displayed with a prominence that other Egyptian queens were not. Her name is enclosed in a royal cartouche, and there are in fact more statues and drawings of her than of Akhenaten. Yet the priest with their materialist model were powerful and they dominated the higher government offices. In this arena women were incapable of divinity. Akhenaten and Nefertiti countered a revolt by the priest and emerged victorious and created a new capital for Kemet called Akhetaten a city that could give birth to their scared mission, a mission in pursuit of Divine life. She insisted on being portrayed has a equal divine partner to Akhenaten and their exist many illustrations of her riding a chariot with Akhenaten during major rituals. While Akhenaten's ideas wanned without him their to defend them. The priest still considered Nefertiti's heresy a greater threat. The concept of a woman bypassing the male priest hood via a mother-goddess to worship the divine was totally unacceptable. And sadly enough continues to be unacceptable in the major religions that dominate the world today. Nefertiti though her devotion and her demand for respect proved she deserved a special place in the history of women.




500,000 to 150,000 B.P. (Before Present)
Homo Erectus develops in Africa.

150,000 B.C. to 100,000 B.C.

The first Homosapiens who were of the Black Africoid race appear at Omo region in Ethiopia.

100,000 to 70,000 B.C.

Africans initiate a cultural renaissance in the Congo Region and South Africa. Well crafted tools of stone and bone are created. Writing and the etching of stone is done. Red ochre is used for body paint and body decoration. Migrations to other parts of the world begin around this period.


No Homosapiens in Asia

Negroid migrations to Australia begins


No Homosapiens in Europe


No Homosapiens in the Americas


80,000 to 50,000

Development of advanced tool making in parts of Africa (evidence found in Congo; 1994: South Africa 2001: age range 100,000 to 70,000 B.C.)
Homo Erectus enters Europe from Africa
Neanderthals thrive in Africa. They migrate to Europe and Asia
African "Adam and Eve," (per Mitochondrial DNA), are the first modern-like humans to migrate out of Africa. They include the various types of Black peoples:
Black Australoids, Pygmoids and Negroids enter Europe, Asia, Siberia, Australia, Melanesia and the Americas

Culture begins in Africa, migrations of Africans to other parts of the world


First Homosapiens occupy Asia, Europe and the Americas from Africa.

50,000 B.C.

Grimaldi Negroids enter Europe with advanced African culture called the Arignacian Culture. Arts such as paintings, cloth making, advanced tool making and other advanced crafts from Africa is brought to Europe, the Americas, Australia and the South Pacific/Melanesia.

African Paintings of animals and scenery in Upper Paleolithic Period about 30,000 years ago.

Black Australoids from Australia and proto African Blacks from the South Pacific reach South America (Brazil) and spread to the rest of the Americas.

Early horticulture practiced in the Sahara. Pastoralism and hunting also practiced.


40,000 B.C.


Iron ore mined in Swaziland about 40,000 years ago for the purpose of making red ochre for decoration and body paint.


Black Grimaldi Negroids migrate to the Middle East and Asia bringing the Aurignacian culture from Africa to Europe as well


Grimaldi Negroids enter Europe bringing in the AUrignacian Culture. They later evolve into the Cro-Magnon People after about twenty thousand years of living in the cold, damp ice and loosing the need for dark black skin.


Ancestors of Black Australoids, Pygmies and Melanesians from the Sahara and East Africa migrate to Australia about 100,000 to 60,000 thousand years ago. Descendants of Tasmanian Blacks arrive thousands of years before. Melanesians arrive from the coast of East Africa about. They establish cultures throughout Asia and are the only Homosapiens in the region. Many occupy China, India, and South East Asia.



30,000 B.C.

Negroid type dominates all Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the Middle East. This type is said to have been a more Negroid Cro-Magnon, who had not been affected as yet by the Ice Age conditions which led to the change in skin complexion.

Blacks bring horticulture and early agricultural practices from Africa to Melanesia, Papua New Guinea and the Region.


20,000 B.C.

First 'white" Cro-Magnon types appear in Europe among a Black population in much of the warmer parts of Europe and Asia.

Pacific Blacks sail to the Americas after sailing from East Africa.

First Black cultures and civilizations called the Aquatic Civilizations developing the Sahara.
First evidence of a more advanced culture in the region.

Blacks from Sahara sail to the Americas across the Atlantic


First "white" Cromagnoids appear in Europe. These Homosapiens evolved from the Black Grimaldi Negroids who migrated from Africa



17,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C...

Beginning of Nile Valley cultures and prehistoric civilizations. Civilizations begin in Sudan and spreads down-river to the middle part of Egypt. The Delta is still covered with water.


Black cultures in SW Asia, India, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, the South Pacific and Southern China thrive. Ice Age still affects northern Asia.
15,000 B.C.

Zingh Empire exists in West Africa while part of Sahara is still covered with Lakes and an inland sea that supports boats and a maritime culture.
Zingh Empire spreads its influence over much of the Sahara, tropical Africa and the Middle East, and establishes their standard; the red, black and green flag over the entire region, (Blisshords Communications)


Blacks control much of Europe especially southern and central part. Ice still in Northern Europe, Cro-Magnon and early Cacausoids in the far northern regions and north Central Europe.


10,000 B.C. to 8,000 B.C.


Kingdom of Ta-Seti (Nubia) reaches a peak of culture. Glass is produced, astronomy is studied, observatories are built, and trade and commerce is established.

Sahara and Nile Corridor continue to develop. Painting, carving, homes, monuments, early disciplines, the horse and chariot, building in stone. Neolithic culture moves on. Agriculture develops further. Some forms of metal working, making of jewelry and decorations. Buildings of towns, villages and cities begin in the Sahara and elsewhere.

Sphinx built about 10,000 B.C., Year of Leo

6280 B.C.

Towns and cities spread throughout Ethiopian Empire (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Libya, Somalia, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Mesopotamia, and South Arabia, India).

Mongoloid race develops from combination Negroids and Caucasoids in Mediterranean region, during the Mesolithic Age. First evidence of Brach cephalic (trait found among Mongoloids and Semites. round-headed races).

Trade and travel between West Asia and Africa.

10,000 B.C.
Great Black civilization exists in Southern India. Culture is Africoid and part of what was a great cultural region that connected the Ethiopian Empire with India.


Black Matrilineal cultures in Southern Europe. Worship of Black female deity (Black Virgin) in Europe. Africoids occupy vast areas of Europe. Caucasians in the Northern regions of Europe.


Blacks continue to build culture and civilization in the Americas. Washitaw Moundbuilders of the South-western U.S.

Black Giants inhabit the Mississippi Region. These Africans are engaged in agriculture and maritime activity as well as trade and commerce.

8000 to 4241 B.C.


Khemetic Calendar invented 6786 B.C.
Civilizations of Ta-Seti in Nubia. Natufian and Badarian Culture in Egypt, Abacus invented in Ishongo, Congo (Central Africa)

Horse, elephant, donkey used in early transportation.

Khemite New Year established in 4241 B.C.
Improvements made in sciences, mathematics, technology, agriculture.

Cities expand, trade with world and colonies established around the Mediterranean.

African Khemetic New Year established in the City of On (Iunu), Egypt. Many great cities exist Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti Continues to thrive and prosper. Colleges, temple universities, laws and religion improves. Manufacturing trade and commerce advances.

Nok Culture develops further in West Africa

Africans with West African and Nile Corridor connections sail to the Americas and carry their calendar dated 3113 B.C., to Mexico.

West African civilizations build industries trading in gold and salt, textiles, with the Sahara and Egypt. Age-grade system of education, trade guilds and secret societies connected with trades and religions develop further.


Mongoloids develop further in the Northern part of Asia. Southern China occupied by Black Negritoes, Negroids and Black Australoids.


Black cultures continue to develop in Mississippi Valley, particularly Washitaw Nation. America's population consists of Black straight-haired Australoids (as those of India and Australian Aborigines) see www.aboriginalaustralia.com
Black Pygmies and Africoids from West Africa.

3500 B.C. to 3000 B.C.


Nubian Dynasty at Qustul 3400 B.C. to 3200 B.C., War of Unity (Northern and Southern Egypt).
Khemet and Nubia united. Narmer Pharaoh.
Memphis (Ineb-hedj) as capital.
Large magnificent temples built to Ptah at Memphis, Niet at Sau (Sais).
Books on the body composed
Pharaoh Edimu improves stone construction. Industries, trade with Mesopotamia, India.

West African civilizations expand. Gold, terrcotta industries, trade, towns in Ghana, Mali areas.


Black Cushitic civilization of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley of India.

Black Cushitic civilization in Mesopotamia, India, East Asia. Sumerians consisting of Black Cushites and Black Semitic Speakers from Ethiopia dominate region.

Groups of Africans sail to Fiji and other areas of South Pacific, continuing a tradition that is tens of thousands of years old.

Mongoloids and Oceanic Blacks mix in SE Asia to create Polynesian People. They spread to the Pacific Islands, a region that had already been occupied by Black nations.

3000 to 2000 B.C.

Caucasian Scythians spread throughout Europe from North Central Eurasia, after horses are tamed and introduced by Khemites (Black Egyptians, (see Michael Bradley, "The Black Discovery of America," also the works of Herodotus).

Whites still concentrated around the Caspian Sea Region, but continue to spread westward and southward in what would be called the Aryan migrations. Gold craftswork in Southeastern Europe continues after being established about 4000 B.C.

Black matrilineal system continues to thrive among whites. Worship of female Goddesses and Black virgin mothers continue.


Black cultures in the Americas continue to thrive. Races up to about 2000 B.C. continue to be Black Australoids and other Black nations.
Black Olmec or Shi culture carried to Mexico from West Africa.
Black Olmecs establish first calendar about 3113 B.C. (see Sitchin www.ancientamerica.com )
Olmec civilization contains features in race, religion and cultural practices identical to the Nok Culture of West Africa, including scarification marks, cornrows, Black African racial features, and even an alphabet identical to the Mende script of West Africa.

Wave of Mongoloids from Siberia enters the Americas.
Fishing, hunting and early agriculture practiced by Mongoloids. Some conflict between the Mongoloids and the Negro-Australoids. Mixing of races occur in parts of North America, however Blacks in places like the Mississippi Valley, the South Eastern U.S., California, Mexico, Central America and South America resist mixing and remain distinctly Black. (See pictures of such groups http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire "Black Civilizations of the Americas."

3000 B.C. TO 2000 B.C.


Sun temples built.
Shabaka Inscriptions:
Influence and power of men like Sahure.
Coffin texts written.
Hennu, Snefru sail to Puntite kingdom, trade, commerce with town’s cities along East African coast all the way to S. Africa.

Books written by philosophers Kagemani, Ptahotep, and Pyramid Texts written.
Book of the Dead (Book of the Coming Forth by Night) written about 2300 B.C.

Nok Civilization thrives over West Africa and parts of Southern Sahara. Art, bronze casting, trade, government and culture strengthened.

Great flourishing of Khemite/Nubian civilization.
Wars between Khem and Nubia as well as Libya.
Zoser builds step pyramid. Imhotep improves architecture, medicine, science; the priesthood is world's first scientist/doctor.
Khemite troops guard Sinai against red-haired barbarians.
Pyramid built at Sakkara and Dashur. Eleven pyramids built during the period.
Khemite trade with Fenkhu (Phonecia). Sahure sails to Asia and may have established contact with people in China.


Black Elamites, Sumerians and Mesopotamians rule in the Fertile Crescent.
Black Elamites conquer Ur. Babylonian Dynasty formed; Hammurabi is king; he writes codes, conquers Sumeria and Elam.

Mohenjo-daro flourishes in India,

Black Xia Dynasty of China 2800 B.C. to 2200 B.C.

Black Shang Dynasty of China; 2200 B.C. to 1100 B.C.
Shang Dynasty Blacks developed first Chinese civilization introducing culture from the Cushite regions of Mesopotamia and Khemet as well as Black Cushite India.

Series of Mongoloid Dynasties and rulers such as: Fu Hsi, Sheng Nung, Yao, Shun, Yu.

Khemite/Nubian and Black Kushite Dravidian influences enter China and influences culture further.

Golden Age of Ur; Semitic speakers invade Black Canaan from Arabian deserts. Black Cushite civilizations develop in Sabena and South Arabia. Sargon of Akkad as first Semite King. Sumeria united


Barbarians dominate Northern and Central Europe.

Black Egyptians occupy Greek Isles, including Crete (Khepra)

Barbarians sweet into Eurasia. Aryan speakers migrate into India and Southern Europe.

Barbarian horsemen spread over wide area of Europe. Blacks loose control of Crete to invaders from the northern lands. Black cultures in Southern Europe begin to be overwhelmed by northern peoples. Khemites and Phoenicians mine tin in Cornwall, England, Iberia and parts of Western Europe. Black colonies established in Britain, including Black giants called Formorians, who migrate from North Africa.


New group of Mongoloids enter North America from the China/Japan region of Asia. These types are related to the Algonquin (see African Presence in Early America," by Ivan Van Sertima)

Conflicts with Blacks occur, yet Black sedentary and agricultural communities remain intact in the Southern, Western and Eastern U.S., as well as the Mississippi Valley, while most Mongoloids pursue a lifestyle of hunting and nomadic movements, fishing and agriculture in the North-Eastern U.S.

Maya Indians live north of Black Olmec areas in Central America and Mexico. Indians cultures develop.

2000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.


Khemites/Kushites invade S.W. Asia; barbarians from Europe defeated in the Delta;
internal conflict occurs in Khem. Waset (Thebes) becomes the most important city in Khemet (Egypt) as well as capital.
Improvements in religions and schools. Asiatics are forced out of the Delta.
Hyksos invade from Arabia. Sea Peoples invade and are defeated by Ahmose 1.
Ahmose the Scribe copies math formulas on papyrus.

Invaders control northern Egypt
Blacks rule south. Amenophis composes "hymn to Atum." Hyksos driven out. Reunification occurs.

Colossi of Memnon constructed (Menes?)
More naturalistic art.

Nok civilization flourishes in West Africa and continues trade with Sahara, Egypt, Kush and the Americas. Trade between Egypt and Mexico continues from ancient times (Mexico may have been the "Manu" of Egyptian texts).
Sailing across Atlantic by Nubians, West Africans and Egyptians as well as Phoenicians. Cities in West Africa (Mauritania region). Gold and salt trade with coastal kingdoms.

Famine in Khemet (Egypt); food prices rise.
Chemistry highly advanced, books kept; Nubians build first ever massive domes, reservoirs, pyramids.
Nubian ships dominate parts of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean as well as Atlantic Ocean.

Nubians control both army and government of Egypt from 1100 B.C. to about 650 B.C.

Egyptians (Khemites) use iron by 1500 B.C... Nubians use iron during same period but not for weapons, since Bronze is more popular. Khem becomes rich and powerful. Egyptian Capital at Pi-Ramses.

Tale of Two Brothers written.

Revolting Nubians defeated by Khemites.
Phoenicians spread from Canaan.
Ethiopians develop Sabean civilization.
Makeda is Queen of Sheba; other kings rule.


Black Shang Dynasty rule China for 643 years, up to 1122 or 1123 B.C. Book of Changes rewritten from the original Cushite Book of Changes from Mesopotamia.

Chou Dynasty, first purely Mongoloid Dynasty starts rule from 1122 B.C. Laws of Chou written;
Indo-Aryans invade Black India. Blacks defeat Aryans but floods destroy Harappa and Mohenjo daro, making it easy for the invaders to sweep into India.

Ancient Vedas composed by Black Negro-Australoids of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and copied later by invaders.

Black Babylonian Dynasty and civilization thrives
Hittites in Turkey; Black Canaanites flourish in what is today Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon

Mongoloid Chinese Dynasties continue to rule in northern China. Black Dynasties rule southern part, mainly descendants of Shang Dynasty who were pushed out of their capital city, An-Yang about 1100 B.C.

First Mongoloids arrive in Japan from Korea. Mongols mix with Blacks, Polynesians and Ainu, who were the original inhabitants of Japan.

Black Melanesians and Polynesians sail over Pacific Ocean, occupying islands and reaching parts of South America.

Mixed Black/Semitic race rules Assyria.
Shamshi Addad II is King; Black Sabean civilization in South Arabia. Black civilization in South Pacific, India, Australia, Jews in Egypt.

Hebrews/Jews invade Black Canaan (present-day, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
Saul and David become Kings of new Israelite nation.

Phoenicians continue their maritime activities are hired by both Egyptians and Nubians for commercial purposes.

Salomon Jewish King establishes relations with Abyssinia.


Middle Minoan to 1180 B.C. Egyptian Blacks continues civilization in Minoa Crete. Etruscans develop. Black colonies in Spain, England. Indo-Europeans such as the Dorians and Latin’s invade Italy from north-Central Europe and Asia

Barbarians roam over Central Europe; Indo-Europeans established in parts of Europe. Greeks under Black Khemite influence, some are mercenaries in Khem. Parts of Western, Southern and Brit. Isles occupied by Blacks; Mycenaean’s destroy Crete; Black colonies formed in Spain including Black Phoenicians.

Rise of Greek City-States
Greek culture adopts Khemetic styles; Minoans no longer a power.


Mayans in Meso-America; Khemites, Nubians and West Africans begin settlement in Mexico by 1200 B.C.

Heads of basalt carved, temples, pyramids, religious centers are built. Mayan city of Kaminaljuyu established. Thousands of Blacks in Vera Cruz, South Mexico. Cities of San Lorenzo built by Black Olmecs. Black Olmec culture starts in 3113 B.C. and continues to about 400 A.D.

Black Olmec-Nubian Dynasties continue their rule. Blacks are at all levels of Olmec society. They spread their culture to the rest of Central America.

Both Mayas and Black Olmecs continue to build in Central America, each group controlling their own areas and yet having trade and commercial contact.

Black Olmec centers built in San Lorenzo. New wave of Black shamans arrives from West Africa and introduces the Venus worship and thunder God religions.

Indian civilizations develop in South America. First Mongoloid Indians move into the Caribbean Island region.

1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.


Journey by Wenamen to Canaan composed.
Herihor is first Prophet of Amen.
Civil war between Khemites; Sheshonk is Pharaoh for 52 years.
Relations with Spain. Libyan Dynasty rules Egypt (Khemet) from 1000 B.C. to 725 B.C.
Khemite Dynasties from850 B.C. to 745 B.C.
Nubian Dynasty rules Egypt from 745 B.C. to 685 B.C.

Nubians revive Egyptian culture, build monuments, cities, and temples; rebuild country.
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh encourages use of demotic script.

720 B.C. to 658 B.C.

Piankhi - 720 B.C.
Shabaka - 713 B.C.
Shibitku - 701- 698 B.C.
Shabataka - 698-690 B.C.
Tarharka - 690-664 B.C.
Tunoutamon - 664 to 658 B.C.


Atlanarsa - 653 to 643 B.C. (Before Christ)
Senkamanisken - 643 to 623
Anlamani - 623- 593
Aspelta - 593 - 568
Amani-nete-yerike = 431 to 45 B.C.
Harsiotef - 404 to 369
Natasen - 335 to 310
Ergamenos - 250 to 125 B.C. Ergamenos abolished the practice of royal suicide, eliminating the Pharaohs after a period of about ten to 20 years of rule
Taniydamani - Between 200 to 100 B.C.

Nubian Queens and Queen-Mothers;

Queen Mother Nasalsa - Mother of Pharaohs Aspelta and Anlamani = 593 B.C.

Queen Mother Pelekhs = 335 to 310
Queen Sakhakh wife of Natasen - 335 to 310
Queen Shanakdakhete = 170 B.C. o 160 B.C.
(starts female Pharaoh rule which lasts for three generations to about mid 100's A.D.

Pharaoh Natakamani and Queen Amanitere, 12 B.C. to 12 A.D. Great builders of cities monuments, temples. They rebuilt Napata after the Roman (Petronius) destruction of the Kushite Capital. They Build Naga Lion Temple.
Queen Amenitere
Queen Sherakerer
Queen Amanisheketo

Pharaoh Tegorideamani - 246 A.D. to 266 A.D.

The Nubian-Kushite civilization and system of Kingship extends back to the time of Ta-Seti (8,000 B.C. to about 4500 B.C. followed by the Nubian-Kushite Kingdom about 4500 B.C. to 1500 A.D. The Nubian Monarchy still exists today and their present King is the oldest line of kingship by any culture on earth today. THIS IS THE CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE THAT NUBIANISTS AND PAN-AFRICANISTS AROUND THE WORLD ARE SUPPORTING. Nubia-Kush is the core, the heart and soul of Pan-African culture and CIILIZATION) Nubian civilization is over ten thousand years, according to excavations and findings carried out in Sudan in the year 2000 (see Time Magazine)

Assyrians Invade About 685 B.C.: Series of European and West Asian invaders rule Egypt, including the Assyrians, Saites, Babylonians, Persians, Jews, Greeks, Romans until about30 A.D.

1000 B.C. t0 500 B.C.

Feudal Age begins in China: Chou takes over from Black Shang Dynasty.

Sargon King of Assyria; Babylon burned by Sennacherib.

Assyrians invade Khem in 671 B.C., They destroy Memphis;
Chou Dynasty is first Mongoloid dynasty. They rule from 771 B.C. to 256 B.C.
Remnants of Black Shang found Black (Nahkhi) Dynasties in Southern China
Chinese use coins, build drainage projects.

Black kingdoms in Southern India:
Greeks, Romans occupy parts of Asia; wars between Persians and Indians.

660 B.C., Jimmu forms first Japanese state.


Illyad, Homers epics written
Lydians us coins;
Khemites (Egyptians) recruit Greek warriors
Celts dominate Central Europe
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh invades Spain, Nubians ( also known as Ethiopians) dominate Atlantic and Mediterranean
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh occupies Spain
Greeks, Persians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Nubians meet in Mediterranean. Trade and conflict occur in the region


Journey of Nubians and West Africans to Mexico, possibly under Tarharka.
Black Olmecs establish another Calendar in 747 B.C. New Year celebrated on April 26th. Mayans build more settlements away from Black Olmec areas.

Black Olmecs or Xi rule in Mexico till about 400 A.D. (3113 B.C. to 400 A.D.)

Chavin and other cultures in South America.
Black Washitaw build ceremonial sites throughout Southern and Midwestern U.S. Black Tribes in California and South-Eastern U.S. thrive through trade and commerce.

500 B.C. to 1 A.D.


Plato studies in Egypt under Black Egyptian priests Manetho writes History of Egypt;
Alexandrian library built and founded by African named Eratosthenes, a scholar and librarian. He charts earth's circumference and also composed Canon of Kings of Thebes.

Nubia flourishes under female Pharaohs called Ka'andakes (Candaces).
Ethiopia (Axum) in golden Era, relations with Jews

Massinissa rules Numidia (200 B.C. to 148 B.C.)
Trade continues between West Africa and Americas and between West Africa and Mediterranean; East Africa to Zimbabwe develops city states and trades with Asia and Mediterranean, the rest of Africa.

Hannibal defeats and occupies Rome.
Stone cities built in Southern Africa.


Black kingdoms in South India; cultures in the Pacific, Nakis Kingdom flourishes in Southern China.

New Period of Philosophers and poets.

Han Dynasty begins 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.

Romans occupy Israel. Jewish religion has offshoots and sects; Christianity develops out of Jewish religion.
Armenia flourishes.


Romans build Empire in Europe, North Africa.
Pax Romana or Roman Peace is established; Romans occupy much of Europe and dominates territories. Roman influence spreads to parts of India.

Pastoralists in Central Europe; Barbarians occupy large areas of Central Europe.

Barbarian conflicts with Roman ambitions. War breaks out.


The Black Olmecs continue to rule in parts of Mexico. Africans continue to sail to Mexico/Central America from Africa and possibly the Pacific Region. Olmecs and Mayas create great cultures, stone monuments, hieroglyphic writing,

Mayans adopt Black Mende Olmec (Xi) cultural forms, including pyramid building, which the Mayans develop into another style.

Cultures in South America and other parts of the Americas continue to develop.

Contacts from Africa and the Pacific Islands.
Black groups and nations form throughout the Americas from Olmec Empire. Choco People in Columbia, Afro-Darienite in Panama, Black Californians of California and the South-West (see Legend of Queen Calfia), Jamassee in Georgia and Washitaw of Louisiana are all existing groups of pre-Columbian Black nations who still exist or are blended in with the later slave-era African arrival to the Americas.

Mayas thrive in Yucatan; Toltec’s in Central Mexico; Teutonic culture.

500 BC. TO 1 A.D.


Nok-Wagadu Kingdom trades with Phoenicians (see Herodotus detail about Hanno's trip around Africa to the Cameroon region, (Nok Culture 3000 B.C. to 500 A.D. Most Africans kingdoms in the Sahel and forest kingdoms of West Africa, such as Benin, Ashanti, Oyo, existed earlier than 1200 B.C. according to African sources).

People in Nok region continue ancient contact with the Americas. Shaman and worshippers of Shango and the Venus Complex migrate to Mexico from West Africa. Migrations began about 725 B.C. and continues to 400's A.D. (see picture of ancient figurine of Oni or Priest-King of ancient West Africa at http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire )


In 525 B.C., Nubians defeat Persian King Cambysis at Batn-al-Hadjar

Aspelta is Nubian-Kushite Pharaoh
Queen Mother is Nasala
Sacred Temple of Amun at Jabel Barkel is rebuilt and refurnished 593-568

Two years after the reign of Nubian Pharaoh Aspelta, Psamtik II of Egypt invades Kush with Greek and Carian mercenaries under command of Amasis and Potasimto. Napata, the Nubian-Kushite capital is captured.

Nubian-Kushites transfer capital from Napata and move southward to Meroe.

Phoenicians and Carthaginians continue trade with West Africa: Hanno sees evidence of Harvest Festival (Kwanzaa) in Cameroon in 450 B.C. (see "The Histories, by Herodotus).
Trade in Gold, salt. African gold, iron, bronze industries thrive in West Africa.

400 B.C.; Ghana Empire spread over large area of West Africa particularly in what is today Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea and other parts of West Africa.

Trade across Sahara continues. Agriculture well established in the region. Cities built.

Greeks and Persians kept out of Kush (Nubia) Ptolemy V attempts to Invade Kush.
Meroe made Kushite (Nubian) capital. Nubians, East Africans (pre-Swahili Africans of Punt) and Abyssinians trade with China and India.

Ethiopians (Sabeans) create large empire which extends from Ethiopia, through Arabia, all the way to Armenia and Southern Russia. Black Ethiopian Jews thrive in Ethiopian Highlands.

Greeks, Jews, Europeans and others study in Egyptian Temple Universities (e.g. Ipet-Uset)

Last Black Khemite (Egyptian) Dynasty 378 to 341 B.C. Nectanebo 1 is Pharaoh. Nectabebo is defeated by Persian Ataxerxes 111, in 343 B.C.

Alexander the Great invades Khemet (Egypt) 322 B.C.

Aspelta is Pharaoh of Nubia-Kush in 525 B.C.

Amanoteyerike is Pharaoh in 400 B.C. He is a warrior-king, builder of cities and temples. He improves Nubian -Kushite culture.

Phonetic alphabet developed further about 170 B.C.

Nubians sack Aswan, in Roman occupied Egypt and carry off statue of Augustus.

Roman Prefect Petronius captures Napata, Nubian capital in 23 B.C. A peace treaty is signed and the Romans withdraw in 20 B.C.

Queen Amanishaketo rules with Natakamani, Pharaoh of Nubia-Kush from 12 B.C. to 12 A.D.

Golden Era of Nubian-Kushite civilization, including the development of an Industrial Age in which the use of iron and the manufacture of iron goods was very important and widespread That period was from about 600 B.C. to 325 A.D.


Buddha teaches in India. Buddha is believed to be of Black Kushite stock, similar to the Negroid peoples who still inhabit many parts of India today. Buddha comes from the Sakya Clan.

Confucius, Chinese philosopher teaches in China.
Bureaucratic system peaks in China.
Persians dominate West Asia eastern Mediterranean from 500 B.C. to 300 B.C.
Persian Kings include, Cyrus, Darius, Cambisis, Xerxes, and Ataxerxes:

Greeks invade India with Alexander the Great.
Black Indians dominate South India.
(Negro-Australoids Kushite speakers).
Wars between Chinese states.
Black Nakhi Kingdom, remnants of ancient Shang People exist in Southern China/Indo China.

Melanesian cultures develop in South Pacific, Papua New Guinea, including development of agriculture/horticulture, boatbuilding, the building of large settlements, sea trading and travel including contacts and trade with East Africans.

Ashoka is King in India. He changes in outlook after a war in which about 100,000 lives are lost.

273-232 B.C. Tang Dynasty influences Japanese culture, including writing, art, religion and language (some African historians point out that the core of Japanese language is East Africa).

Period of Philosophers and Poets
Han Dynasty 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.

Romans occupy Israel
Christians emerge from Jewish religion
Armenia flourishes


Romans in Europe
Conflict between Romans and various European Tribes
Nubian and North African troops in Europe and Britain. Rise of Bodacia, British Queen who leads struggle against Roman occupiers.
Spread of Christianity in the Mediterranean


Black Olmec Civilization continues to flourish in Mexico, Central America and elsewhere.
Mayas and other groups of Mongoloid "Indians," gain prominence.
Teotihuacán culture prospers in Central Mexico

Nomadic and coastal Indian peoples inhabit parts of the Great Plains and both the Eastern and Western U.S. Migrations from Siberia trickles into the American Continent from Alaska.

Black nations continue to trade by sea and by land in the Mississippi Valley region, California and the South-Eastern U.S.

Arawak and Mongol Carib Indians conflict in Caribbean Islands.

1 A.D. to 1000 A.D.


Egypt under Roman occupation. Black Khemetic culture still dominant in Egypt except in places where descendants of Jews, Greeks and others live.

Romans bring in people from the Arabian region into Egypt.

Nubian civilization continues to flourish: Natahamani is Pharaoh From12 B.C. to 12 A.D.

Period of about 400 B.C. to 200 A.D., African priests from Nubia and Khem (Egypt) teach science, art, technology and history to Demetrius of Phalere, Diodorus Cronos Hegesias, Euclid, Manton, Aristech’s of Somas, Archimedes, Sextons, Plutarch us, Plato, Aristius, Eratosthenes, Claudius Maximus, St. Augustine and many others.

Thousands of ancient books written by Nubian Ethiopian and Khemite priests over thousands of years were copied during this period at Alexandria
Golden era of Nubian civilization; large cities built. Temples, colleges and schools improved. Highly advanced arts and crafts. Nubians continue their maritime trade and commerce. Build strong army with expert archer regiments on horseback.

Nubia invaded by Axumites led by Azana in 325 A.D.
Axumite Empire is established in Ethiopia from about 200 B.C. to 800 A.D., as a continuation of the Black Sabean Empire of ancient times.
Ethiopia sees a Golden Age of culture, religion, trade, commerce from about 300 A.D. to 1100 A.D. During that period, huge churches carved out of solid cliff rock are built in the Lilebella Region of Ethiopia.
Ethiopians carry out trade and commercial activities with Nubians, other Africans, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, East Indians, South Africans, Swahili, Arabians and others.

Christianity officially established in Nubia and Ethiopia between 300 A.D. to 500 A.D. Christianity in its early forms reached Nubia and Ethiopia as early as the time of the Apostles and Ethiopian Eunuch. Judaism reached Ethiopia about the time of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, 950 to 1000 B.C.

Swahili city-states grow rich and powerful and continue an ancient tradition in trade and commerce that extends back to the time of Hatshepsut and Queen Ati of Punt. Swahili cities stretch from Somalia to Mozambique. Many are more than two thousand years by the time the Arabs and Persians arrive to trade in the Region (see Egyptian paintings of Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt) (about 300 A.D. to 1000 A.D.)

Zimbabwe Empire spreads in Southern Africa. First stages of building of Zimbabwe stone enclosures begins about 300 B.C. Vakaranga People continues to expand buildings over much of Zimbabwe during the 1000's to 1100's A.D.
Shona People add to construction later on.

Zimbabwe Empire trades with Swahili, Chinese, coastal and interior Africans and other peoples.
Commodities traded include steel (the world's first steel and the blast furnace to create steel were invented by the East Africans in Kenya about 200 B.C.). The trade in Zimbabwe also included gold, ivory, iron tools and weapons, rice, jewelry, cloth and manufactured products. Products were sold to China, India, Europe, the Middle East, Arabia (the famous "Damascus steel," was created in Zimbabwe.


The ancient kingdoms of West Africa and West African culture itself has existed since prehistoric times. In fact, the earliest civilizations on earth, the Aquatic civilizations of the South Western Sahara began over 20,000 years ago. They were master ship builders and practiced agriculture. They also may have made significant contributions to the building of advanced civilizations in the Americas, such as the Olmec and the Washitaw of the Mississippi, both ancient American cultures that show African influence from the West Africa/Sahara region.

Great kingdoms established as early as 3000 B.C., by 1500 B.C. kingdoms that gave rise to empires such as Oyo, Benin, Ashanti are established. They trade with Egyptians and other Africans as well as with people in the Americas.

West Africa enters a golden era between 400 B.C. to 1600 A.D.A number of kingdoms reemerge. They include Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem Bornu, Congo, Angola, Ashanti and others.

West African Kings

Tenkamenin King of Ghana 1000th Century
Tenkamenin was one of the Kings of Ghana who reigned when Ghana was going through another cultural renaissance.

Sunni Ali Ber 1464 to 1492.

He built the Songhai Empire into a large and powerful empire in West Africa and one of the richest on earth. He had a large army of full-time professional soldiers including horse and camel cavalry units. He captured Timbuktu (a magnificent city where books were manufactured ought and sold and where students from all over the world studied) and the university city of Jenne, after a seven-year siege on the city of Jenne.

Askia Muhammad Toure 1493 to 1529

Askia Muhammad was a great leader and king. He was an honorable man and was righteous. During his reign, he created provinces out of his vast country and established an efficient system of administrators and judges. He lowered taxes making it easier for the common people to pay.

Alfonse I, King of Congo 1506 to 1540

Affonso I was the first African leader to begin the process of modernizing Africa. He encouraged the learning of a number of skills and subjects and established the most modern school system in Africa. Affonso 's objective was to create a powerful state that excelled in technology and knowledge. Affonso was against the slave trade and worked to stop it in his kingdom.

Idris Alooma Sultan of Bornu 1580 to 1670

The Kingdom of Kanem-Bornu, near present-day Chad, was created through the union of two states, Kanem and Bornu. Aloma united these two states. He was a strong leader and had a large army with a cavalry of knights and horseback in armor. He also used muskets as one of his weapons.

Shamba Bolongongo (1600 to 1620)

King Shamba as one of the Greatest kings of the Congo region. His main objective was making sure peace was kept throughout his kingdom/
Shamba believed in the most highly cherished aspects of African religion, that being the right to live.
He created a very effective system of government, using the traditional system of African democratic traditions including checks and balances. Shamba's government included sections such as the military, judicial, and administrative branches. During his reign, Shamba Bolongongo contributed to making the arts and crafts of the highest quality and level through his promotion and support.

Osei Tutu, Ashanti King; Ghana 1680 to 1717

The Ashanti are also remnants of people who lived in West Africa as well as people who migrated from the Sahara. Osei Tutu united the Ashanti People and established a strong military and trading nation. Ashantis were successful in defeating the British during the late 1800's and they like the Dahomey (Benin) trained women soldiers in their armies. The British were able to defeat the Ashanti after many ears of warfare.

Powerful Nubian Christian Kingdoms of Mukuria, Nobadia and Alwa emerge from Nubian Empire.
Nubia enters crusades on side of Christians. Arabs defeated in Nubia by Emperor Kalydosos during the 600's A.D., yet their attempt to infiltrate Nubia continues

Treaty holds till 1500's A.D. until Arabs attack Funj Empire.

End of Nubian Kingdom after 10,000 years of existence.

Ethiopians in the Crusades while a religious renaissance takes place in the Ethiopian kingdom. They create rock-hewn churches, monastic traditions, writing of encyclopedias, books, scrolls, and a tradition that extends earlier than the 500 A.D.

Ethiopians defeat Gallas and Arabs; Turks defeated at Asmara during the 1500's. Portuguese defeated.

Black African population dominant before Arab invasions:
Black population in Egypt is supplanted with people from the Arabian region. Mixed races dominate northern part of Egypt, Blacks dormant in the southern part. Islam gains a foothold in Egypt after invasion of 600's. Coptic’s continue Christian tradition.

Malians send ships to the Americas between 1200 to 1300's

Mali becomes powerful maritime trading empire: Abu Bakari sends 2000 ships to the Americas in 1305 to 1308.

More on West African Civilization, see "African Glory," by J.C.deGraft-Johnson, pub. Black Classics Press, Baltimore MD.


712 A.D., Africans and Arabs conquer Sind, India; Black kings from the Ethiopian region rule the region.

Ganges, Ethiopian emperor, establishes an empire that stretches from Ethiopia to Ganges River in India.

Abraha Al-Ashram, ex-slave becomes emperor of Yemen and Ethiopia. He defends Yemeni Christians against Jews in 569 A.D.

Golden Era of Black Civilization (Khmer) in Cambodia (for more see http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html )

From about 800 A.D. to 1300 A.D. Black Negroid Black Negro-Australoids (also found in Bangladesh and other parts of India) and Negrito kingdoms dominate Cambodia and South East Asia. They include:

Chenla, 802 A.D. to 850 A.D.
Anghkor, 802 A.D. to 1431 A.D.
Champa 100 A.D. to 1200 A.D.
(see also the book, "African Presence in Early Asia," by Ivan Van Sertima; Transaction Publishers)

Blacks of SE Asia trade with East Africa, India,

500 A.D. to 1185 A.D. Yamato Clan rules Japan; Reforms in Japanese government around 645 A.D.
700 A.D. to 1000 A.D., Classic Age of Japanese culture, art, literature.

Feudal Age in Japan
Samurais take power
Chinese use gunpowder
1274 - Mongol invasion of Japan repelled.

1404 Chinese trade with Asia and
with Africa continues

Onin War; feudalism in Japan 1467 to 1477
Portuguese visit Japan in 1543
Other Europeans visit Japan

Chinese Admiral Chengo Ho visits East Africa in a great fleet of Chinese ships. African ships from Mediterranean Region continue 3000 years of trade and visits to China.

Marco Polo in India 1288 to 1293 A.D.; He visits China in 1269 A.D.
Mongol Dynasty of China 1260 to 1328
Portuguese visit Canton 1517


400's A.D. Romans withdraw troops from parts of Europe. The fall of the Roman Empire commences in the West.

Europe enters Dark Ages (400's to 711 for Spain/Iberia) 400's to 1000's rest of Europe.

711 A.D. Black Moors from Senegal led by their General Gabel Tarik, invade Spain and Portugal.  They introduce science, art, technology, agricultural sciences, animal husbandry, the university and college system, new methods of maintaining hygiene.

First Arab invasion (white Semitic Arabs) of Spain occurs in the 1000's

Black Moors make Spain Europe's most advanced nation and sets the seeds for the renaissance in Spain. Spain declines after 1492, when Black Moors and Arabs, Jews are expelled to Africa and the Americas.

Black Moorish noblemen begin many European aristocratic families (their heads are usually on the family crests of names such as Moore).

Astrology, mechanics, chemistry, geology, early robotics, optics and many sciences are introduced by Black Moors.

Charlemagne’s Empire in Western Europe begins in 814 A.D.

1066 A.D. Normans conquer England.
Crusades against Muslims in the Palestine
Black Moors still in Spain, they spread over Europe and contribute to European cultural development.
See http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html
Moors build universities in Toledo and Salamanca, Spain.

Moorish Spain flourishes along with Italy. Various massive buildings, cities, castles, forts are built using African Moorish architecture (still common in Senegal, Mauritania and Morocco)

1488 Portuguese sail to Africa
Conflicts between Goths and Moors.
Conflicts between Black Moors and Arabs in Spain.

Italian city-states grow in power. They trade with other nations and build their wealth.

European Renaissance

European Renaissance takes back around 1400 to 1600's A.D. due to Black Moorish technological input and scientific contributions to Spain and the rest of Europe.

Moors expelled from Spain; many went to southern France and other parts of Europe, the vast majority return to Africa, others go to the ;Americas or are shipped there as slaves.

Columbus hears of African voyages to Americas from Moors . In 1492, he sails to Cape Verde Region (near Senegal) stocks his ships and sails to the Americas led by his ship's captain, the Christianized Black Moor named Afonso Nino


Africans from West Africa sail to the Americas and trade with American Indians of the Caribbean, South America, Mexico and the Southern U.S.

Africans and Aztecs establish trade during the reign of Quaquapitzuak (African Presence in Early America: Van Sertima)

Trade in almaizer cloth, iron and glass beads, vegetables and fruits including corn and cotton, trade in guanin (gold, copper silver alloy.

Africans trade with South America, Colombia and Panama on the very day that Columbus arrives in the West Indies.

Mandinkas and other Africans continue their centuries-old trade with Indians. Trade bass in South America, Caribbean , Mexico, California, S.W. United States, Cahokia region of South East U.S.

Arawak Indians of Caribbean and the Black Kalifunami (ancient Mandinkas seafarers who sailed to the Americas) unite in West Indies and bring about new group of people called "Black Caribs.

Inca civilization in Peru; various American Indian kingdoms including Chokia, Pueblo culture, Black Washitaw Moundbuilders.
Black Jamassee Nation of the South-eastern U.S.
African ships trade with Peru.

1200's A.D. Mongol Caribs attack Arawaks in South America initiating a period of attacks on Arawaks that lasts until the coming of Columbus in 1492.

Columbus in Bahamas looking for gold; Indians tell him that African merchants were selling gold and cloth in the region and had come to the region from the Southwest.




1. Civilization or Barbarism, by Cheikh Anta Diop, pub. by Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago, IL.

2. Egypt Revisited, by Ivan Van Sertima; pub. By Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick NJ

3. The African Origin of Civilization, by Cheikh Anta Diop; pub. by Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago, Il. U.S.A

4. Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth: pub. by 1stbooks Library, Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A.

5. A History of the African-Olmecs; pub by 1stbooks Library, Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A.

6. The Black Untouchables of India; pub. by Clarity Press, Atlanta Georgia U.S.A.

7. African Glory by J.C. deGraff-Johnson; after word by John Henrik Clarke: pub. by Black Classics Press, Baltimore MD. U.S.A

8. African Presence in Early America; by Ivan Van Sertima: Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey U.S.A.

9. Pillars of Ethiopian History by William Leo Hansberry: published by Howard Univ. Press
Washington D.C., U.S.A.

10. Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization, by Anthony T. Browder; pub. by Institute of Karmic Guidance, Washington D.C. U.S.A

11. General History of Africa Ancient Civilizations of Africa Vol. II, Edition by James Curry and M. Mokhtar; UNESCO; Universtiy of California Press

12. The Columbus Conspiracy, by Michael Bradley: pub. by A&B Book Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.

13. The Black Discovery of America, by Michael Bradley: pub by Personal Library, Toronto, Canada

14. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Kushite Empire, by Drusilla Dunjee Houston: published by Black Classis Press, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A

15. Susu and Susunomics: The Theory and Practice of Pan-African Economic, Racial and Cultural Self-Preservation: pub by
www.iuniverse.com also available at www.barnesandnoble.com California, U.S.A.

16. 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro, With Complete Proof, by J.A.Rogers: Helga Rogers Publishers, St. Petersburg, Florida, U.S.A.






























"For the complexion of men, they consider black the most beautiful. In all the kingdoms of the southern region, it is the same."

--Early Chinese Chronicler

On December 7, 1999 I returned to San Antonio, Texas from a two-week educational tour to Thailand and Cambodia. It was my second trip to Thailand and my first trip ever to Cambodia. Indeed, until 1999 I never really thought that I would have a chance to go to Cambodia, and so my trip there was something of a dream come true.

Quite naturally the trip was a search for African people. I am particularly interested in African migrations. We know now, for example, that the first humanity emerged from Africa and that streams of African people have continued to flow across the world from ancient to modern times. It is therefore very important for us to address the questions of exactly where did those Africans go, what did they do when they got there and what has subsequently happened to them. I consider such an approach Pan-African in its nature, African-centered in character and an earnest attempt to reunite a family of people separated far too long.


The most prominent and enduring kingdom of early Southeast Asia was Angkor (ca. 800-1431), located primarily in Cambodia. The builders of Angkor were an Africoid people known as Khmers--a name that loudly recalls ancient Kmt (pharaonic Egypt). Noted Harvard anthropologist Roland Burrage Dixon wrote that the Khmers were physically "marked by distinctly short stature, dark skin, curly or even frizzy hair, broad noses and thick Negroid lips." In remote antiquity the Khmers established themselves throughout a vast
area that encompassed portions of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Laos.

The Khmers of Angkor were sophisticated agriculturalists, aggressive merchants and intrepid warriors. They created a splendid irrigation system with some canals as long as forty miles. They engaged in extensive and ongoing commerce with India and China. For purposes of war they had machines designed to hurl heavy arrows and sharp spears at their enemies, and rode into battle atop ornately decorated elephants.

In the Khmer language, Angkor means "the city" or "the capital." In 889 king Yasovarman I constructed his capital on the current site of Angkor, and over the centuries consecutive Hindu and Buddhist Khmer kings augmented the city with their own distinct contributions. Angkor eventually covered an expanse of 77 square miles and was designed to be completely self-sufficient. The Khmers were magnificent builders in stone, and for more than six hundred years, successive Khmer dynasties commissioned the construction of stupendous temple islands, marvelous artificial lakes and incomparable temple mountains, including Angkor Wat--the crown jewel of Angkor, estimated to contain as much stone as the Dynasty IV pyramid of king Khafre in Old Kingdom Kmt.


My first full day in Cambodia began with a morning tour of the regal Angkor Wat temple. The temple of Angkor Wat, the most famous of Khmer stone structures, is truly magnificent to gaze upon and took a grand total of 37 years to build. During this period the millions of tons of sandstone used in the temple's construction were transported to the site by river raft from a quarry at Mount Kulen, 25 miles to the
northeast. Angkor Wat rises in three successive stages up to five central towers that represent the peaks of Mount Meru--the cosmic or world mountain that lies at the center of the universe in Hindu mythology and considered the celestial residence of the Hindu pantheon. The towers of Angkor Wat, the tallest of which rises about 200 feet above the surrounding flatlands, are Cambodia's national symbol. The temple's outer walls represent the mountains at the edge of the world, while the moat surrounding the temple represents the oceans beyond.

The Angkor Wat temple dates from the twelfth century reign of Suryavarman II (1113-1150). This was a time when the Khmer dominion over Southeast Asia was at its very pinnacle, with an empire known as Kambuja "stretching from the South China Sea to modern Thailand, as far north as the uplands of Laos and as far south as the Malay Peninsula. King Suryavarman II built it as a funerary temple for himself, and dedicated it to the Hindu god Vishnu, whom the king represented on Earth and with whom he integrated on his death."

Angkor Wat is decorated throughout with intricate bas-reliefs depicting stories from the epic Hindu poems, the Mahabrarata and the Ramayana, with marching armies, fantastic demons and vivid and sensual depictions of the celestial female dancers of the Khmers known as "apsaras." French architect and archaeologist Henri Parmentier gave his opinion of the apsaras of Angkor Wat in 1923 when he said that "to me they are Grace personified, the highest expression of femininity ever conceived by the human mind." During the era of Khmer rule over Cambodia a walk to the center of Angkor Wat was a metaphorical trip of the spirit to the center of the universe.

FOR MORE INFORMATION GO TO: African Presence in Early Asia, edited by Runoko Rashidi and Ivan Van Sertima

*RUNOKO RASHIDI is an historian, lecturer, research specialist and global traveler. He is always in search of African people and is currently organizing a major tour to Southeast Asia in April 2005. For more information on the tour, to schedule lectures and order audio and video tapes contact Runoko at Runoko@yahoo.com or call Runoko at 210 337-4405. And visit Runoko's award winning web site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html



Here you will see Gandhi's racist views towards the blacks.

SUMMARY: To understand Gandhi's role towards the blacks, one requires a knowledge of Hinduism. Within the constraints, a few words on Hinduism will suffice: The caste is the bedrock of Hinduism. The Hindu term for caste is varna; which means arranging the society on a four-level hierarchy based on the skin color: The darker-skinned relegated to the lowest level, the lighter-skinned to the top three levels of the apartheid scale called the Caste System. The race factor underlies the intricate workings of Hinduism, not to mention the countless evil practices embedded within. Have no doubt, Gandhi loved the Caste system.

Gandhi lived in South Africa for roughly twenty one years from 1893 to 1914. In 1906, he joined the military with a rank of Sergeant-Major and actively participated in the war against the blacks. Gandhi's racist ideas are also evident in his writings of these periods. One should ask a question : Were our American Black leaders including Dr. King aware of Gandhi's anti-black activities? Painfully, we have researched the literature and the answer is, no. For this lapse, the blame lies on the Afro-American newspapers which portrayed Gandhi in ever glowing terms, setting the stage for African-American leaders Howard Thurman, Sue Baily Thurman, Reverend Edward Carroll, Benjamin E. Mays, Channing H. Tobias, and William Stuart Nelson to visit India at different time periods to meet Gandhi in person. None of these leaders had any deeper understanding of Hinduism, British India, or the complexities of Gandhi's convoluted multi-layered Hindu mind. Frankly speaking, these leaders were !
no match to Gandhi's deceit; Gandhi hoodwinked them all, and that too, with great ease. Understanding of Hindu India with our black leaders never really improved even considering years later in March 1959, much after Gandhi's death, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., his wife, and Professor Lawrence D. Reddick visited India and to our way of analysis, they fared no better than their predecessors. We are certain, had Dr. King known Gandhi's anti-black and other criminal activities, he would have distanced his civil-rights movement away from the name of Gandhi. We recommend the following:

1. Grenier, Richard. The Gandhi Nobody Knows published in Commentary March 1983; pages 59 to 72. This is the best article on Gandhi briefly outlining his war activities against the blacks.

2. Kapur, Sudarshan. Raising up a Prophet: The African-American Encounter with Gandhi; Boston: Beacon Press, 1992 Excellent research book into the perspective of distant American blacks with respect to their new hero, Gandhi. However, this book has one major flaw: The author seems to be unaware of Gandhi's anti-black activities in South Africa.

3. Huq, Fazlul. Gandhi: Saint or Sinner? Bangalore: Dalit Sahitya Akademy, 1992.
Superb book. Really gets into the Gandhi's anti-black ideology with a sense of history setting intact. This book can be purchased from the International Dalit Support Group, P.O Box 842066, Houston, Tx 77284-2066.

This book's second chapteróGandhi's Anti-African Racismóis a superb analysis of Gandhi's anti-black thinking. We bring to you the whole chapter for your review:

Gandhi was not a whit less racist than the white racists of South Africa. When Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress on August 22, 1894, the no. 1 objective he declared was: "To promote concord and harmony among the Indians and Europeans in the Colony." [Collected Works (CW)1 pp. 132-33]

He launched his Indian Opinion on June 4 1904: "The object of Indian Opinion was to bring the European and the Indian subjects of the King Edward closer together." (CW. IV P. 320)

What was the harm in making an effort to bring understanding among all people, irrespective of colour, creed or religion? Did not Gandhi know that a huge population of blacks and coloured lived there? Perhaps to Gandhi they were less than human beings.

Addressing a public meeting in Bombay on Sept. 26 1896 (CW II p. 74), Gandhi said:

Ours is one continued struggle against degradation sought to be inflicted upon us by the European, who desire to degrade us to the level of the raw Kaffir, whose occupation is hunting and whose sole ambition is to collect a certain number of cattle to buy a wife with, and then pass his life in indolence and nakedness.

In 1904, he wrote (CW. IV p. 193):

It is one thing to register natives who would not work, and whom it is very difficult to find out if they absent themselves, but it is another thingó-and most insultingó-to expect decent, hard-working, and respectable Indians, whose only fault is that they work too much, to have themselves registered and carry with them registration badges.

In its editorial on the Natal Municipal Corporation Bill, the Indian Opinion of March 18 1905 wrote:

Clause 200 makes provision for registration of persons belonging to uncivilized races (meaning the local Africans), resident and employed within the Borough. One can understand the necessity of registration of Kaffirs who will not work, but why should registration be required for indentured Indians who have become free, and for their descendants about whom the general complaint is that they work too much? (Italic portion is added)

The Indian Opinion published an editorial on September 9 1905 under the heading, "The relative Value of the Natives and the Indians in Natal". In it Gandhi referred to a speech made by Rev. Dube, a most accomplished African, who said that an African had the capacity for improvement, if only the Colonials would look upon him as better than dirt, and give him a chance to develop self-respect. Gandhi suggested that "A little judicious extra taxation would do no harm; in the majority of cases it compels the native to work for at least a few days a year." Then he added:

Now let us turn our attention to another and entirely unrepresented communityó-the Indian. He is in striking contrast with the native. While the native has been of little benefit to the State, it owes its prosperity largely to the Indians. While native loafers abound on every side, that species of humanity is almost unknown among Indians here.

Nothing could be further from the truth, that Gandhi fought against Apartheid, which many propagandists in later years wanted people to believe. He was all in favour of continuation of white domination and oppression of the blacks in South Africa.

In the Government Gazette of Natal for Feb. 28 1905, a Bill was published regulating the use of fire-arms by the natives and Asiatics. Commenting on the Bill, the Indian Opinion of March 25 1905 stated:

In this instance of the fire-arms, the Asiatic has been most improperly bracketed with the natives. The British Indian does not need any such restrictions as are imposed by the Bill on the natives regarding the carrying of fire-arms. The prominent race can remain so by preventing the native from arming himself. Is there a slightest vestige of justification for so preventing the British Indian?

Here is the budding Mahatma telling the white racists how they can perpetuate their Nazi domination over the vast majority of Africans.

In the British imperialist scheme, one important strategy was to divide and rule. Gandhi advised Indians not to align with other political groups in either coloured or African communities. In 1906 the coloured people in the colonies of Good Hope, the Transvaal and the Orange River colony, addressed a petition to the King Emperor demanding franchise rights. The petitioners showed clearly that, in one part of South Africa, namely the Cape of Good Hope, they had enjoyed the franchise ever since the introduction of representative institutions.

Commenting on the petition, the Indian Opinion of March 24 1906, declaring that "British Indians have, in order that they may never be misunderstood, made it clear that they do not aspire to any political power," added:

It seems that the petition is being widely circulated, and signatures are being taken of all coloured people in the three colonies named. The petition is non-Indian in character, although British Indians, being coloured people, are very largely affected by it. We consider that it was a wise policy on the part of the British Indians throughout South Africa, to have kept themselves apart and distinct from the other coloured communities in this country.

In a statement made in 1906 to the Constitution Committee, the British Indian Association led by Gandhi (CW. V p.335) said:

The British Indian Association has always admitted the principle of white domination and has, therefore, no desire, on behalf of the community it represents, for any political rights just for the sake of them.

Commenting on a court case, the Indian Opinion of June 2 1906, in its Gujrati section, stated:

You say that the magistrate's decision is unsatisfactory because it would enable a person, however unclean, to travel by a tram, and that even the Kaffirs would be able to do so. But the magistrate's decision is quite different. The Court declared that the Kaffirs have no legal right to travel by tram. And according to tram regulations, those in an unclean dress or in a drunken state are prohibited from boarding a tram. Thanks to the Court's decision, only clean Indians (meaning upper caste Hindu Indians) or coloured people other than Kaffirs, can now travel in the trams. (Italic portion is added)

Apartheid defended: Gandhi accepted racial segregation, not only because it was politically expedient as his Imperial masters had already drawn such a blueprint, it also conformed with his own attitude to the caste system. In his own mind he fitted Apartheid into the caste system: whites in the position of Brahmins, Indian merchants and professionals as Sudras, and all other non-whites as Untouchables.

Though Gandhi was strongly opposed to the comingling of races, the working-class Indians did not share his distaste. There were many areas where Indians, Chinese, Coloured, Africans and poor whites lived together. On February 15 1905, Gandhi wrote to Dr. Porter, the Medical Officer of Health, Johannesburg (CW. IV p.244, and "Indian Opinion" 9 April 1904):

Why, of all places in Johannesburg, the Indian location should be chosen for dumping down all kaffirs of the town, passes my comprehension.

Of course, under my suggestion, the Town Council must withdraw the Kaffirs from the Location. About this mixing of the Kaffirs with the Indians I must confess I feel most strongly. I think it is very unfair to the Indian population, and it is an undue tax on even the proverbial patience of my countrymen.

Dr. Porter replied that it was the Indians who sub-let to Africans.

Commenting on the White League's agitation, Gandhi wrote in his Indian Opinion of September 24 1903:

We believe as much in the purity of race as we think they do, only we believe that they would best serve these interests, which are as dear to us as to them, by advocating the purity of all races, and not one alone. We believe also that the white race of South Africa should be the predominating race.

Again, on December 24 1903, Indian Opinion stated:

The petition dwells upon `the comingling of the coloured and white races'. May we inform the members of the Conference that so far as British Indians are concerned, such a thing is particularly unknown. If there is one thing which the Indian cherishes more than any other, it is the purity of type.

In his farewell speech at a meeting held in the house of Dr. Gool in Capetown, which was reported in the Indian Opinion of July 1 1914, Gandhi said:

The Indians knew perfectly well which was the dominant and governing race. They aspired to no social equality with Europeans. They felt that the path of their development was separate. They did not even aspire to the franchise, or, if the aspiration exists, it was with no idea of its having a present effect.

Gandhi joined in the orgy of Zulu slaughter when the Bambata Rebellion broke out. It is essential to discuss the background of the Bambata Rebellion, to place Gandhi's Nazi war crime in its proper perspective.

The Bambatta Rebellion--Background

The spiritual foundation of Nazism was the superiority of the Aryan race or its modern version, the Anglo-Saxon race. When Disraeli was Prime Minister, Britain enunciated a doctrine, like the Monroe Doctrine, warning other European powers that Africa would be a British preserve, and that from the Cape to the Limpopo, if not to Cairo, only white people would have local political power. Successive British Governments pursued this policy.

In the 1870s, the Zulu Kingdom was by far the most powerful African State of the Limpopo. Cetewayo, who succeeded his father in 1872, was an able and popular ruler. He united the kingdom and built up a most efficient army. He followed a policy of alliance with the British Colony of Natal. The Zulu Kingdom and the Boer Republic of the Transvaal had been feuding for a long time. The Zulus were defeated twice by the Boers, in 1838 and 1840. By 1877 Cetewayo was ready to invade the Transvaal. But the British stepped in and annexed the Transvaal in 1877, only to prevent Cetewayo from doing it first and becoming powerful and a challenge to white supremacy.

Some contemporary reports throw light on the relative strength of the Zulus and their Boer enemies. Colonel A.W. Durnford wrote in a memorandum on July 5 ("The Secret History of South Africa" by Abercrombe. The Central News Agency Ltd., Johannesburg South Africa. 1951 p.6):

About this time (April 10th) Cetewayo had massed his forces in three corps on the borders, and would undoubtedly have swept the Transvaal, at least up to the Vaal River if not to Pretoria itself, had the country not been taken over by the English. In my opinion he would have cleared the country to Pretoria.

Shepstone, the British Administrator, himself wrote concerning the reality of the danger on Dec. 25 1877:

The Boers are still flying, and I think by this time there must be a belt of more than a hundred miles long and thirty broad in which, with three insignificant exceptions, there is nothing but absolute desolation. This will give some idea of the mischief which Cetewayo's conduct has caused.(Ibid p.7).

The above facts explode the myth that the British protected the Zulus from the Boers.

British barbarity on Blacks: After annexing the Transvaal, Shepstone turned his attention to destroying all the independent African states in that region, particularly the Zulu Kingdom. Before annexation of the Transvaal, Shepstone sided with the Zulus in their border disputes with the Transvaal. After annexation he made a volte-face and used those disputes as excuses to invade Zululand. The British public was told that the Zulu War was to liberate the Zulu people from a tyrannical ruler, and South Africa from a menace to "christianity and civilisation".

In 1879, the British invaded the Zulu Kingdom and defeated Cetawayo. Then they started their complete subjugation. First the army was broken, thus destroying their ability to defend themselves. The country was then split into thirteen separate units under the nominal control of the chiefs, salaried by the Government. The white magistrates supplanted the chiefs as the most powerful men in their districts. Most important of all, the land was partitioned. Before the war, Shepstone had expressed the hope that Cetewayo's warriors would be "changed to labourers working for wages". It makes a sad story, how this was accomplished. In 1902-4, the Land Commission delineated a number of locations for the Zulus, and threw open the rest of the country to white settlement. Out of a total acreage of more than 12 million acres, the Africans held some 2 million acres. They numbered, at the lowest reckoning, over three hundred thousand. The Europeans, who were less than 20,000, owned most of !
the best land. A large proportion of the African population was forced to live upon land to which it had no legal claim. Where the Africans lived upon private or crown lands, they lived there entirely upon sufferance and without legal title. By this time, other independent African states in that region were also destroyed by the British army. Wheresoever, they marched, in Basutoland, Zululand or Bechuanaland, the Queen's horses and the Queen's men were like unto a "Salvation Army" ministering to the welfare of the colonists. The sufferers were the Africans.

Gandhi wrote in his Satyagraha in South Africa (p.15):

The Boers are simple, frank and religious. They settle in the midst of extensive farms. We can have no idea of the extent of these farms. A farm with us means generally an acre or two, and sometimes even less. In South Africa, a single farmer has hundreds or thousands of acres of land in his possession. He is not anxious to put all this under cultivation at once, and if any one argues with him he will say, `Let it lie fallow; lands which are now fallow will be cultivated by our children'.

Also in his Indian Opinion (March 15 1913), he wrote:

General Botha has thousands of acres of land ... (there is) a big company in Natal which has hundreds of thousands of acres of land.

Thou shalt not steal but rob.

It did not seem to occur to Gandhi how these people came into possession of thousands of acres of land, whereas Africans were cooped in locations like chicken in pens.

Grabbing the land was not enough: it needed manpower to cultivate that land. The cry of the farmers was for labour. Naturally it found a favourite response from Shepstone, whose dream it was to convert Cetewayo's warriors into labourers for white men. His native policy was to meet the demands of the European farmers. He agreed that Europeans could not expand or grow in wealth unless they could draw more fully upon the reservoirs of labour in the African reserves.

In the process of European colonisation, the swiftly expanding land-hungry Europeans turned the bulk of the African population into a proletariat. Due to the congestion and landlessness in the reserves, created deliberately by the white rulers, their agricultural return was not sufficient for bare existence. Then there were the taxes on huts, cattle and what not. On the other hand, working for white men did not provide them with adequate sustenance. In Natal, the sugar farmers of the coast relied upon the Indian indentured labour, whereas the stock farmers of the interior relied exclusively on Africans, and regarded the failure of Africans to work for them as a criminal offence. In a report to the Chief Commissioner of Police in 1903, the Police Inspector W.F. Fairley wrote: "With regard to crime, the principal complaints made by Dutch farmers to patrols was of the refusal to work on the part of the natives." (Department Reports 1903 p.67 cited "Reluctant Rebellion" by Marks!
p.17. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1970). Complaints about the shortage of African labour were voiced in all parts of the country. The farmers were later joined by the mining industries. The most obvious change was the broadening of the economic base from being entirely agricultural to one in which mining played a more and more important part. Diamond, gold, coal became major industries, and with this development, the deeper involvement of the big finance houses, particularly Rothschilds. So the fate of the Africans as the source of cheap labour, and the fat dividends derived from mining by the British ruling class, became interlinked. This still continues in a modified form. Now it is Anglo-American corporations.

Cheap labour from India: Europeans assumed that Africans lived only to meet their requirements of cheap labour, and as such they had no right to establish themselves as self-sufficient and independent farmers because this conflicted with European interests. Famines in India facilitates the recruitment of indentured Indian labourers for white employers in the Colonies. It was no different in relation to Africans. In a Report of the Native Affairs Commission, (Native Affairs Commission Report 1939-40 cited "Oxford History of South Africa" p.182. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1969) it was admitted that "African reserves were regarded by whites as reservoirs of labour, and congestion, landlessness and crop failure were welcomed as stimulants to the labour supply". Similar situations among whites were viewed as national calamities. The Government lent millions of pounds to white farmers, gave them tax relief in times of famine, paid subsidies, facilitated the export of their produce, !
and wrote off their debts. But what about Africans? Famine would be rampant, crops ruined, food exhausted, thousands of Africans and their cattle would starve to death, but the government would not raise a finger.

The whites not only stole the land from the Africans, and used them as cheap labour, but also looked to them for revenue. They drew a relatively large and growing income from the Africans. "The Native population of Natal", Shepstone admitted ("Imperial Factor" by De Kieweit p.193. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1970), "contribute to the revenue annually a sum equal, at least, to that necessary to maintain the whole fixed establishment of the Colony for the government of the whites as well as themselves." Taxation is a financial measure to gather revenue to meet the expenditure of the state. But in South Africa it was used to reduce Africans to slavery. The sole motive behind the extra taxation imposed on Africans was to force the Africans to work on terms dictated by the whites.

Always there was resentment against any measure which would allow the Africans to settle in locations instead of keeping them as labourers. It was not only the farmers' conferences, the press owned by the mining magnates joined the outcry of the farmers to enact special laws to compel the Africans to come out of their locations and work for the whites. The press was in the forefront to arouse the sentiments that Africans not in European service were necessarily living in idleness. Gandhi's Indian Opinion played second fiddle to the white press in this respect. To Gandhi, the imposition of taxes upon the Africans to compel them to work for the white employers was "gentle persuasion".

By a stroke of the pen, the major part of the available land was taken away from the Zulus and given to Europeans. Some of the dispossessed Zulus were allotted locations and others remained on the land of European landlords on sufferance. Bambata was one of these unfortunate chiefs. He became Chief in 1890 and he and his people were placed in private locations on very high rents. The land was useless for any agricultural purpose. To make things worse, the Boer farmers suspected Bambata of informing the British about their pro-Boer activities, and naturally they tried to victimise him and his people. But after the war, the British rulers leaned backwards and went out of their way to kiss and hug the Boers. So Bambata was caught in a cleft stick. By 1905 the tension between Bambata and his white landlords reached crisis point. The Assistant Magistrate of Greytown, H. Von Gerard, wrote to the Under Secretary of Native Affairs recommending the allocation of a location for his pe!
ople. Gerard described how people were being oppressed and squeezed by the landlords, what useless land it was for agricultural purposes, and how summons after summons was being issued against people who were unable to pay high rents. Finally he remarked ("Reluctant Rebellion" by Marks. P.201):

A most desperate state of affairs, the more so as there seems no remedy for it....My sympathies with Bambata's people...but I see no way out of the difficulty.

The military and civilian leaders of Natal were consciously developing a picture as if an uprising was imminent. Not that they could foresee one, but they wanted to foresee one because that would give them a golden opportunity to inflict severe punishments on Zulus who, according to the colonists, were growing insolent. They drew up a plan to deal with this imaginary uprising swiftly, and all agreed that was the way they could save not only Natal but North Africa from the "barbarities which only the savage mind can conceive." (Ibid p. Xvii)

Zulu Revolt: But outside Natal, people were not so sure. Styne, President of the Orange Free State, called it "hysteria". Smuts, Botha and Merriman expressed concern as to whether the whites of Natal would spur a rebellion. Some churchmen and many radical humanitarians in Natal, as well as England, produced volumes of irrefutable evidence proving that it was a conspiracy to goad the Zulus into rebellion and then massacre them. In this, Hariette Colenso, the famous daughter of a famous father, Bishop Colenso, made the most outstanding contribution. There was a cry of imminent native revolt in the press long before active rebellion broke out.

As far back as 1902, Lieu. G.A. Mills in his report (GH18/02. Cited "Reluctant Rebellion" p.158) to the Chief of Staff, Natal, on July 1 informed him:

Every Boer expresses the most bitter hatred of the Zulus. They all express a wish that the Zulus would rise now while the British troops are in the country so that they may be practically wiped out. The Boers all say that in the event of the rising, every one of them would join the British troops in order to have a chance of paying off old scores against the Zulus. When I first came here, I visited farms and asked the Boers what they thought of the advisability of keeping troops here. They all said it was most necessary, as they were afraid of the Kaffirs and it would not be safe to stay on their farms if the troops withdrew.... Taking everything into consideration, I cannot help being forced to the opinion that many Boers intend to provoke a Zulu rising if they can do so.

It was Colonel Mackenzie, the military supremo before the rebellion, who was prophesying a native uprising and cleaning the barrels of his guns to use the "golden opportunity" to inflict "the most drastic punishment" on leading natives he found guilty of treason, and to "instill a proper respect for the white man". (C.O. 179/233/12460. Dispatch 9.3.06 cited "Reluctant Rebellion" p. 188).

On June 14, Charles Saunders, Chief Magistrate and Civil Commissioner in Zululand (1899-1909) wrote to C.J. Hignet, the magistrate of Nqutu ("Reluctant Rebellion" p.241):

I quite agree with your conclusions as to our men trying to goad the whole population into rebellion, and you have no idea of the difficulties we had in Nkandha in trying to protect people one knew perfectly well were faithful to us.

In his communication of July 10 1906 to the Prime Minister, (PM 61/15/66 Governor to PM 10.7.06) the Governor described the "sweeping actions and the mopping-up operations as continued slaughter. Fred Graham, a permanent civil servant in the Colonial Office, in his Minute of July 10, described it as "massacre".

Nazism & racism: The most revealing was the long letter of July 24 1906 (CO 179/236/24787 minute 10-7-06) sent by the Anglican Archdeacon, Charles Johnson, from St. Augustine's in Nqutu division, to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospels in London. He was a man of the British establishment and not known to have excessive zeal for standing up for the rights of the Africans. He wrote (cited "Reluctant Rebellion" p. 241):

Many thinking people have been asking themselves, what are we going to do with his teeming population? Some strong-handed men have thought the time was ripe for solving the great question. They knew that there was a general widespread spirit of disaffection among the natives of Natal, the Free State and the Transvaal, but specially in Natal, and they commenced the suppression of the rebellion in the fierce hope that the rebellion might so spread throughout the land and engender a war of practical extermination. I fully believe that they were imbued with the conviction that this was the only safe way of dealing with the native question, and they are greatly disappointed that the spirit of rebellion was not strong enough to bring more than a moiety of the native peoples under the influence of the rifle. Over and over again it was said, `They are only sitting on the fence, it shall be our endeavour to bring them over'; and again, speaking of the big chiefs, `We must endeavour t!
o bring them in if possible! Yes, they have been honest and outspoken enoughó-the wish being father to the thoughtó-they prophesied the rebellion would spread throughout South Africa; had they been true prophets, no doubt the necessity of solving the native question would have been solved for this generation at least.

John Merriman was a veteran Cape politician. He was one of those so-called liberals who accepted Nazism as a doctrine, or in other words Anglo-Saxon superiority, but regretted its consequent atrocities and thus fumigated their consciences. He wrote to Goldwin Smith (Merriman papers NHo. 202, 16.9.06 cited "Reluctant Rebellion" p.246) in September 1906:

We have had a horrible business in Natal with the natives. I suppose the whole truth will never be known, but enough comes out to make us see how thin the crust is that keeps our christian civilisation from the old-fashioned savageryómachine-guns and modern rifles against knobsticks and assagais are heavy odds and do not add much to the glory of the superior race.

In the letter of the Archdeacon the expression "practical extermination", and in a letter of Lieutenant Mills "practically wiped out", have been used. This was what the German Nazis wanted to do to the Jews: to exterminate them. Does it make any difference whether the victims of racial slaughter are Jews or blacks?

Conspiracy to massacre Blacks: Gandhi was well aware of the conspiracy to massacre the Africans. When there was war hysteria in the colonial press, this prophet of non-violence did not apply his mind as to how to stop such a conflict. On the contrary, he did not want Indians to be left behind, but wanted them to take a full part in this genocide.

In his editorial in the Indian Opinion of Nov. 18 1905, long before the actual rebellion broke out, Gandhi complained that the Government simply did not wish to give Indians an opportunity of showing that they were as capable as any other community of taking their share in the defence of the colony. He suggested that a volunteer corps should be formed from colonial-born Indians, which would be useful in actual service.

Indentured Indians lived in conditions worse than slavery. Gandhi during his 20 years' stay in South Africa, did not raise a finger to ease their sufferings. But he was quick to suggest using them as cannon fodder for racists against Africans.

In his Indian Opinion in Dec. 2 1905 he referred to Law 25 of 1875 which was specially passed to increase "the maximum strength of the volunteer force in the colony adding thereto a force of Indian immigrant volunteer infantry". To assure the Europeans that such Indians would only kill Africans, he pointed out that "section 83 of the Militia Act states that no ordinary member of the coloured contingent shall be armed with weapons of precision, unless such contingent is called to operate against other than Europeans".

Gandhi defends massacre: Many years later, he wrote (p.233) in his autobiography:

The Boer War had not brought home to me the horrors of war with anything like the vividness that the `rebellion' did. This was no war but a man-hunt, not only in my opinion but also in that of many Englishmen with whom I had occasion to talk. To hear every morning reports of the soldiers' rifles exploding like crackers in innocent hamlets, and to live in the midst of them, was a trial.

Then to justify his participation in this massacre, he went on (Autobiography p. 231):

I bore no grudge against the Zulus, they had harmed no Indian. I had doubts about the `rebellion' itself, but I then believed that the British Empire existed for the welfare of the world. A genuine sense of loyalty prevented me from even wishing ill to the Empire. The righteness or otherwise of the `rebellion' was therefore not likely to affect my decision.

What about the Nazi war criminals? Did they not have a genuine sense of loyalty to Hitler and Nazism?

In Great Britain another storm of protest was raised against the atrocities perpetrated in Natal. The only time Gandhi mentioned the Zulu suppression was on August 4 1906, when he wrote in his Indian Opinion:

A controversy is going on in England about what the Natal Army did during the Kaffir rebellion. The people here believe that the whites of Natal perpetrated great atrocities on the Kaffirs. In reply to such critics, the Star has pointed to the doings of the Imperial Army in Egypt. Those among the Egyptian rebels who had been captured were ordered to be flogged. The flogging was continued to the limits of the victim's endurance; it took place in public and was watched by thousands of people. Those sentenced to death were also hanged at the same time. While those sentenced to death were hanging, the flogging of others was taken up. While the sentences were being executed, the relatives of the victims cried and wept until many of them swooned. If this is true, there is no reason why there should be such an outcry in England against Natal outrages.

One may notice that the article was very cleverly written. First Gandhi stated that people in England believed that the whites of Natal perpetrated great atrocities on Africans, as if he himself did not know what happened, and also gave the impression that it was the local Natal Army and not the Imperial Army which was involved in the atrocities, which is not true. Even at this stage, he was not willing to tell the simple truth, that atrocities were committed. Then he borrowed the description of hanging and flogging in Egypt from the Star as if he did not know about that either. Did or did not Gandhi know that those Egyptians were not common criminals to be flogged and hangedóthat they were the patriots, the flowers of the Egyptian nation?

If Gandhi unequivocally accepted or found out that the Imperial Army committed those atrocities, then he could not claim that he believed the British Empire existed for the welfare of mankind. The last and the vilest of all was the subtle suggestion that if the Imperial Army did what they were accused of doing, then there was no reason why there should be such an outcry in England against the Natal outrage. Why could this Imperialist-manufactured Mahatma not say clearly that both were crimes against humanity?


"I would rather be a member of this [Afrikan] race than a Greek in the time of Alexander, a Roman in the Augustan period, or Anglo-Saxon in the nineteenth century." - Edward Wilmot Blyden

"However much we may detest admitting it, the fact remains that there would be no exploitation if people refused to obey the exploiter. But self comes in and we hug the chains that bind us. This must cease." - Mohandas Gandhi


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"At the time that the twelve African Christian martyrs died in A.D. 180 there were living two great African personages: Septimius Severus, who later became Emperor of Rome; and Tertullian, one of the greatest of Church leaders."
--J.C. DeGraft-Johnson, African Glory

Of my recent travels in Europe I suppose that it is appropriate that we start with Rome, for it was to Rome that I flew to on the first leg of my European journeys that began in January 2003. And so it was, that after connecting flights from New York to London to Amsterdam to Rome's Leonardo Da Vinci Airport, and a late night check in at the Royal Gambrinus Hotel in the city center, I was ready to begin my tour of eternal Rome--one of the world's most celebrated cities.

Actually I had not even planned to visit Rome at the time. I thought that I had secured a speaking engagement in Stockholm through some African brothers in Sweden, but when that fell through and with time in Europe on my hands, Rome became an attractive prospective destination. And much to my delight, I found that someone special would be looking out for me when I got there and that was none other than Samia Nkrumah--Kwame Nkrumah's youngest daughter! During the course of several days I really came to like sister Samia and not only because of her father. She was described to me even before the trip not just as "the only daughter of Kwame Nkrumah. She is a bright, young, and very energetic political journalist, who I am sure can give you some insight during your tour!"

Indeed, Samia turned out to be a beautiful and charming and really good sister, and I enjoyed her company immensely. She even arranged for me to give a slide presentation at a local bookstore and you know I liked that! So I not only visited Rome but lectured there also! And the lecture, translated by Samia's husband, was followed by dinner, coffee, cocktails and conversation that lasted well into the night, Thanks so much sister Samia. for she was a sort of African oasis in a kind of Roman desert, as I saw only a scattering of other Africans during my visit, mostly Somalis and Ethiopians, a handful of Algerians, Moroccans and Tunisians, a few Senegalese, one brother from Ireland and an occasional African-American tourist.


As stated earlier, the attraction that Rome had for me was her vast store of antiquities and there was really far too much to be taken in during the course of a week's time. But I did get to see a bunch of wonderful sites and monuments that ranged from the Roman Coliseum to Trajan's Column, to the Baths of Caracalla, to the City Walls, to the Imperial Forums, to the Circus Maximus, to the Pantheon, to the Pyramid of Caius Cestius, to the obelisks of Thutmose III and Ramses II and quite a few other places too. These were all impressive structures and I was happy to see and photograph them but I must say that as a whole they paled in comparison to the mighty monuments of ancient Egypt. I also visited and glanced at, although it was heavily scaffolded, the great Axumite obelisk taken to Rome from Ethiopia by the Italians during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia from 1935 to 1941 and waiting for its long overdue return to Mother Africa.

And of course I went to all of the major museums in Rome. These museums included the Vatican Museums, the Capitolini Museum, the Etruscan Museum and at least two national museums--the Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme and the Museo Nazionale Romano.

The Vatican Museums have a vast collection that includes a number of excellent Greek and Roman pieces and some exquisite pieces from ancient Egypt, including a larger than life statue of Queen Tuya (wife of Seti I and mother of Ramses II) of Dynasty Nineteen. The statue was originally in Ramses II's mortuary temple (The Ramesseum) only to be taken from Egypt to Rome by Emperor Caligula.

The Capitolini Museum, with its stunning collection of marbles and described as the "oldest public collection of ancient artworks in the world", also has a set of ancient Egyptian artifacts and a superb image of Diana/Artemis of Ephesus in the form of a multi-breasted Black fertility goddess. And I must say, giving credit where it is due, that the Romans worked wonders with marble and probably the best representations of such works are housed in the Capitolini Museum.

The Etruscan Museum was splendid also and I was able to wander its halls towards the end of my trip to Rome. The Etruscans were the precursors of the Romans in Italy and their culture reflects a considerably closer relationship with ancient Africa than their successors. As in ancient Egyptian art, the Etruscan men are consistently dark while the Etruscan women are portrayed much lighter. Etruscan women seem to have enjoyed a freedom far greater than that of later Roman women, and women and men in general are frequently portrayed as happy and loving couples in Etruscan art. I was hard pressed to find anything of the sort among the Romans themselves.

There were in the museum, I believe, two or three Etruscan vases with obviously Africoid faces depicted on them, and one of the more interesting of the Etruscan exhibits, dated to 275 B.C.E., depicts what appears to be an African elephant.


I suppose that you could accurately say that African people can be found everywhere on the planet in either ancient or modern times or both. And certainly I had been finding information about the African presence in early Rome for quite a while now.

Ancient African people, sometimes called Moors, are known to have had a significant presence and influence in early Rome. African soldiers, specifically identified as Moors, were actively recruited for Roman military service and were stationed in Britain, France, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Romania. Many of these Africans rose to high rank. Lusius Quietus, for example, was one of Rome's greatest generals and was named by Roman Emperor Trajan (98-117 C.E.) as his successor. Quietus is described as a "man of Moorish race and considered the ablest soldier in the Roman army."

In addition to this background, I also knew that by the end of the second century of the Christian Era more than one third of all of the members of the Roman Senate were born in Africa and Africans were dominant in Rome's intellectual life. And going all of the way back to my first reading of of Joel Augustus Rogers' World's Great Men of Color I found out about the African-Roman writer Publius Terentius Afer (190-159 B.C.E.). It was this African, Terence, who penned the immortal words, "I am a man and nothing human is alien to me."


In addition to all of the above, I also knew, regarding the African presence in early Rome, about saints and theologians and martyrs like Tertullian, Cyprian and Augustine. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian, for example, was the first of the church writers to make Latin the language of Christianity. Tertullian was born into a rich family in Carthage in 170 C.E. He wrote Greek and Latin fluently and was "well trained in the school of rhetoric where Apuleius (another African), had been a pupil a generation before." Tertullian's wife was a Christian and he himself a convert. A man of fiery temperament and evangelical spirit, Tertullian is said to have lived to an advanced age. In 197 C.E., during the reign of Septimius Severus, Tertullian's Apologia was published.

St. Cyprian is called the "greatest of the bishops of Carthage, the first African martyr-bishop and the man who, more than anyone, organized the African Church." His reputation was such that the Churches of Gaul and Spain appealed to him as an arbiter. Like Tertullian before him, Cyprian was born of a prosperous family in Carthage in 200 C.E. He eventually held a chair in rhetoric at Carthage and in middle age, after reading the works of Tertullian, he converted to Christianity. Following his conversion Cyprian distributed most of his fortune to the poor. As an orator he was such that only three years after becoming a Christian he was elected bishop of Carthage. Sixty of Cyprian's letters have survived as testament to his great intellectual gifts. On September 14, 258 C.E., St. Cyprian, after paying his executioner twenty-five gold pieces and surrounded by a large crowd of Christians, was beheaded.

Susan Raven, in her wonderful book Rome in Africa, refers to St. Augustine, born in 354 C.E. in Thagaste, North Africa, as "the greatest African." Augustine was the son of St. Monica and largely because of her desires he converted to Christianity in 386 C.E. In 395 C.E. he became Bishop of Hippo, North Africa. His teaching on free will, original sin and the operation of God's grace has been in illuminated in numerous publications, particularly in his City of God, published in 397 C.E. St. Augustine died in August 430 C.E. during the Vandal siege of Hippo.


There were at least three African Popes at Rome. St. Victor I became the first known African bishop of Rome in 189 C.E. and reigned until 199 C.E. Victor I, the first pope to write in Latin and the first pope known to have had dealings with the imperial household, is described as "the most forceful of the 2nd-century popes." According to the late scholar Dr. Edward Vivian Scobie:

"Although nothing is known of the circumstances of his death he is venerated as a martyr, and his feast is kept on July the 28th. Today, in the history of the Roman Church he is remembered, not only for his ruling that Easter should be celebrated on Sunday, but he has also been named in the canon of the Ambrosian Mass, and he is said by Saint Jerome to have been the first in Rome to celebrate the Holy Mysteries in Latin."

St. Miltiades, a Black priest from Africa, was elected the thirty-second pope after St. Peter in 311 C.E. Under Miltiades, after the issuance of an edict of tolerance signed by the Emperors Galerius, Licinius and Constantine, the great persecution of the Christians came to an end and they were allowed to practice their religion in peace. St. Miltiades is regarded as a Christian martyr and died in early January 314 C.E.

The third of the African popes and the forty-ninth pope overall was St. Gelasius I. He was born in Rome of African parents and governed from 492 to 496 C.E. He is described as "famous all over the world for his learning and holiness" and "more a servant than a sovereign." He died on November 19, 496 C.E. and like St. Victor I and St. Miltiades, St. Gelasius I was canonized. As a Saint, his Feast-day is held on the 21st of November. Again, according to Dr. Scobie, "St. Gelasius I has been described as Great even among the Saints."


The crowning highlight of my trip to Rome was the National Roman Museum, where all of the information that I had been reviewing for all of these years was validated. For here, on the last day of my trip I found evidence of an African dynasty at the very height of imperial Rome.

I had been in Rome for almost a week by then, and while it had been for the most part a pleasant experience I had not made the major and meaningful find that I had hoped that I would. I had seen no really Africoid images of Hannibal Barca or any Black Madonna statues or anything like that. And then it happened. Walking methodically through the museum galleries I gazed into Room XIII and there it was! Even at a glance I thought that one bust, in particular, looked strikingly Africoid. I looked closer and read the caption on the bust. It read Alexander Severus. I was familiar with that name--Severus. And then I turned around and saw a marvelous bust of Septimius Severus. And then I saw busts and statues of Septimius' two sons--Geta and Caracalla and they all looked Africoid too, some more so than others. I had stumbled (or was I divinely led?) into a room that I had no prior knowledge of filled with these images of African looking Roman emperors!

This dynasty, known to historians as the Severan Dynasty, began with the accession to the throne of Septimius Severus in 193 C.E. In actuality, Septimius shared the throne for two years with Pesennius Niger. Indeed, could Pesennius Niger, another of Rome's outstanding military commanders, himself have been an African? His name certainly indicates that possibility.

Records state that Septimius was born in Leptis Magna on the North African coast (modern day Libya) on April 11 in either 145 or 146 C.E. And Septimius was not just born in Africa. Numerous pictures, busts and statues of him show him to be phenotypically Black. Here, I have to say that the information that I was able to gather in Rome in March 2003 was further augmented by the acquisition of a color post card of a wood panel of Septimius Severus and his family, done around 200 C.E., that I obtained seven months later in the Antiquities Museum in Berlin. Again, there is no doubt that he was a Black man and the painting itself shows him as what I would describe as somewhere between copper colored and deep burnished brown.

Young Septimius, coming from a family of Romanized Africans, received a education rooted in Roman literature and quickly learned to speak Latin. After his formal education was completed he adopted an official career and became a civil magistrate. Later, he became a military commander, and this took him to Rome where he proved himself an able and popular and conscious military leader.

Around 199 C.E., six years after becoming emperor, Septimius even journeyed to Egypt. Can you imagine Emperor Septimius sailing on the Nile? Consider what he might have thought as he gazed at the pyramids and walked through the Karnak and Luxor temples.

Around 203 C.E. Septimius had a mighty arch constructed in the Imperial Forum. This monument is considered one of Italy's most important triumphal arches.

He is even said to have built a marble tomb for Hannibal Barca--early Rome's African nemesis. Indeed, because of his own African origins, Septimius has been referred to as "Hannibal's revenge."

After a distinguished career characterized by administration reorganization, exploits on the battlefield and the intensification of Christian persecution, Septimius died conducting yet another military campaign, this one in York in Britain, on February 4, 211 C.E. He was of sixty-five years old and and had been in poor health, suffering severely from gout, for years. His reign was seventeen years, eight months and three days and he was the last Roman emperor to die of natural causes for almost a hundred years.

Septimius Severus was succeeded in 211 C.E. by his sons Lucius Septimius Geta (211-212 C.E.) and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus aka Caracalla (211-217 C.E.). These brothers are said to have constantly plotted against one another and Caracalla finally had Geta murdered in 212 C.E. It was under Caracalla in 212 C.E. that Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the Empire. Caracalla was also responsible for refurbishing roads and the construction of a triumphal arch in Algeria, as well as his already mentioned enormous public baths. Caracalla was himself murdered by the military in 217 C.E.

Geta and Caracalla were followed by the Mauritania born Marcus Opellius Macrinus (217-218 C.E.), the Praetorian Prefect and the first non-senator to become emperor. Heliogabalus (218-222 C.E.), said to be either the son or nephew of Caracalla and a man of dubious character, followed Macrinus, and then came Severus Alexander (222-235 C.E.), who restored the Roman Coliseum to its ancient status and with whose thirteen year reign the era of the Severan domination of Rome came to an end.

This line is known as the Severan Dynasty and the National Roman Museum busts and statues and sculptures of the representatives of this dynasty strongly testify to their African identity. They are powerful images and like many of the statues and busts and sculptures of ancient Egypt I found the noses missing on all of them save one of Septimius' son Caracalla. And the face adorning the bust of Severus Alexander, the last member of the dynasty, is even more Africoid looking than that of Septimius Severus, the dynasty's founder.

I guess that you say that I was elated and pretty much blown away by my discovery of the Severan Dynasty, and I was able to leave Rome on a very high note. Actually the whole trip had been a high note, and as other horizons beckoned me I thought of my visit to Rome as a very successful endeavor. I felt good about having gone to Rome. I had seen a part of the world that until recently I never had serious aspirations about seeing and had spent an exciting week exploring what was for me a brand new city. I had lectured there and been well received in yet another country. I had been hosted and in part accompanied by the youngest daughter of one of our greatest leaders ever. And I had found that a small cadre of African men had ruled over the Roman Empire during the height of its imperial glory. Yes, indeed, this was a most successful trip.

May 10, 2004

*Runoko Rashidi is an African historian and research specialist very much in love with Africa. He is currently coordinating an educational tour to Peru scheduled for November 2004. For more information go to Runoko's award winning Global African Presence Web Site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html






"How do we explain such a large population of Blacks in Southern China, powerful enough to form a kingdom of their own?"
--Chancellor James Williams, The Destruction of Black Civilization

"Most of the population of modern China--one fifth of all the people living today--owes its genetic origins to Africa."
--Quoted in the Los Angeles Times, September 29, 1998

2001 was one of my biggest travel years ever. It was a year that I decided to visit some of the world's world great antiquities including those in China, Egypt, Peru, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. China was the first leg on the journey.

How many of us have wanted to visit China? I certainly did, and when the opportunity availed itself in March 2001 there I went. I was already in Hawaii anyway and I was excited about going farther. Not only was China the center of a great and ancient civilization, it was a land with a deep history of African contributions, and me being a man with a keen interest in the global African presence, especially Asia, I felt that I simply had to go.

And so it was that, buoyed by the fact that the trip had been handled by an African travel agency (I love to recycle Black dollars), I arrived, all alone, in Beijing on March 4, 2001. Sure enough, sisters and brothers, it was not long after landing in China that I found myself on the "Great Wall." It was another dream come true--I was actually standing on the Great Wall of China. But beyond the excitement of being there, how was it really? Actually, I was not that impressed. I suppose that I had been spoiled by Egypt and I've come to the conclusion that after you've visited Egypt a few times everything else pales in comparison.

Indeed, since my first trip to Egypt in 1992 I have visited India's Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri and Pink City, mighty Angkor in Cambodia, Great Zimbabwe in Southern Africa, Bagan in Myanmar, the rock churches in Lalibela, Ethiopia, Cusco and Machu Picchu in Peru, and a whole lot more. And these are impressive areas indeed but nothing really matches up to the pyramids, tombs and temples of Egypt. But at least I could say that I was there--that I stood on the Great Wall! Good for me.

Following the Great Wall I journeyed to the Ming Tombs, which I found interesting but not really awe inspiring. But it was during my visit to the Ming Tombs that something happened that in many ways set the tone for the entire trip. People started to follow me! Both men and women, but especially young women, started following me! Finally, I just stopped in my tracks and asked my tour guide what was going on. He told me that my followers were in admiration of me and thought that I must be some kind of celebrity! Well, with that explanation handed to me I quickly calmed down and went about the important business of sight seeing. But the people continued to follow me and it soon got to the point where folks were shaking my hand and asking to take photographs with me. Well, worse things have happened to me and I pretty much took it in all in stride. But a lot more was to follow on my Chinese odyssey and not all of it was as pleasant.

And so I got through my first day in China. I had had a long trip, checked into a fabulous hotel, climbed China's Great Wall, visited the Ming Tombs and been mistaken for a celebrity. All in a day's work in the life of Runoko Rashidi, fast on his way to becoming a legend in his own mind. Next day, fresh and relaxed I went to the Forbidden City. I remember a lot of things about that second day. First, that it was cold and windy. Second, I found not a scrap of litter on the streets. Third, that language was going to be a big barrier. Fourth, I never saw any women in tight and revealing clothes. And, perhaps more than important than all of the rest, I had not seen any Black people yet--neither depiction nor actual person! There were none in the Forbidden City, just as there had been none on the Great Wall or in the Ming Tombs. So much for antiquity. And then it suddenly dawned on me that I hadn't seen any in the hotel or in the restaurants or in the streets or anywhere.
What was going on here? Trust me when I say that a brother was starting to feel a little lonely.

Next day I visited the Temple of Heaven and the Lama Temple. I was impressed with both places. And this was followed the next day with a trip to the Reed Moat Bridge, the Summer Palace and Tianamen Square. I went to different restaurants every day and the food was great. So far, pretty good. But still, no Black folks! What could have happened to them I wondered? Wasn't this the place where Chancellor Williams said that we were once powerful enough to build a kingdom of our own? And didn't my brothers James E. Brunson and Wayne B. Chandler document the existence of Black people here? Hadn't Clyde Ahmed Winters done some pioneering work on the subject? And hadn't Rev. James Marmaduke Boddy written about the African presence in ancient China way back in 1905? And what about that 1998 DNA study that concluded that most of the people of modern China had African genetic origins? What was going on here? I was starting to feel confused.

Next day I took an excursion about 128 kilometers out of Beijing to visit the East Qing Tombs. I thought that if I couldn't find Black people in Beijing itself that I might have better luck elsewhere. The tombs were splendid and it was well worth the journey, although I still had not found what I was looking for. On the other hand, the people that I met that day were said to be peasants of Manchu stock and they weren't friendly at all. Indeed, for the first time on the trip I met folks who actually seemed cold and even a little hostile. I didn't like it. When I asked my tour guides what the local people were saying about me they just shrugged and requested that I not worry about it. I liked it even less.

Well, I guess that you could say that by this time I had seen about enough of Beijing and the surrounding areas and it was more than time to go. And so away I went to city of Xi'an. You know the city--the one with the terra cotta soldiers. I didn't see the soldiers that day but I did make a long anticipated visit to the the Shaanxi Provincial Museum of History--said to be China's best museum. What a disappointment! Not a sister or brother--ancient or modern--in the place. Damn!

And then I went to the Tang Dynasty Museum. The Tang Dynasty represents one of the great high points in Chinese history. But there was nothing that I could say was distinctly Africoid in the Tang Museum! They even brought the Museum Director himself out to meet me. I was told that it was his official day off but when he heard that I was coming he showed up anyhow. He told me that he was honored to meet me and that I was the first Black man to ever visit the place. But when I asked him about African people in the history of China I drew a complete blank. He claimed that he knew nothing about such a possibility. At least he was consistent.

Of my three guides, all of whom professed great stores of knowledge regarding early China, I could jar nothing loose from them regarding an ancient African presence. At the same time, however, they all knew about the anti-African riots that took place in China in the mid-1980s. I was beginning to wonder if all of this, I mean the whole experience, was a kind of dream or something.

The following day was my best in China! I went to the Banpo Neolithic Village and drove past the the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, and finally got to the museum of terra cotta soldiers and horses. They were magnificent and represent another high point in Chinese history, and I was impressed by the fact that both the tomb and soldiers and horses belonged to the same man who began construction of the Great Wall, and thought that closest comparison that I could make was to the great pyramid builders of Old Kingdom Egypt.

For lunch that day in Xi'an I went to another great restaurant followed by a visit to an actual Chinese tea house. This time all of the waitresses paused in their attention to the needs of the other diners to give me a peep and even the chef came out of the kitchen to take a look. And, oh yes, by this time I can seen a couple of African-American tourists and what appeared to be an African diplomat and one of them actually talked to me! Wow!

The next two days I saw the Xi'an city walls, a Han tomb complex, a drum tower and another museum. And I noticed a few other things too. It seemed that the Chinese, in general, smoked like chimneys, that they were highly disciplined, that there were lots of unemployed laborers, that there was a great deal of industrial pollution and the skies always seemed hazy, that there were many things to buy with aggressive vendors at every site, and that the people as a whole seemed very proud to be Chinese.

Well sisters and brothers, my trip to China was coming to an end and I suppose that it was just as well. I was glad that I went but I had found no documentation of the African presence and had spent quite a lot of money in my search. I suppose that I should have been better prepared but based on all the work that had gone into my African Presence in Early Asia anthology I really thought that it would have been a simple process with the African imprint everywhere. It turned out to be far from the case. Even the artifacts that I saw dating from the Shang Dynasty period did not seem Africoid. At least they didn't to me.

And so, rather downcast, I returned to Beijing for one more night before an early morning flight back to the United States. Settling down in Beijing's Mandarin Hotel I got a fabulous suite and then went out in search of what I hoped would be a really special meal before I departed the People's Republic of China. But it did not turn out that way. As a matter of fact, I never did get to eat that evening. The first two restaurants that I went to were in the hotel itself. In the first one I waited about thirty minutes for service and never having received any I simply got up and walked out. In the second hotel restaurant I felt distinctly unwelcome. I don't believe in spending money where I don't feel comfortable and so I soon left that place too. And then I walked around the block thinking that I would have more success outside of the hotel. But the result was just more of the same. At one restaurant that I stopped at I was quickly ushered in with a smile and what appeared to
be words of welcome. But then all of a sudden all of the waitresses started to giggle and laugh and I soon got the heck out of there too.

Sisters and brothers, I was livid! I not only let the front desk at the Mandarin Hotel have it at what I considered my overall rude treatment at the hands of the Chinese but I had plenty of venom left for my tour guides the next morning too. All they could do was tell me how sorry they were and rather lamely explain that the local people were just not used to seeing Black folks. And so I blasted them some more.

So I guess that you could say that my trip to China was a kind of bitter sweet affair. I am glad that I had gone because there is nothing like seeing it for yourself. And many of the monuments that I saw there were indeed impressive. But I left China thinking that I would never go there again and I could not help wondering again and again about what happened to all of the Black people in China.

*Runoko Rashidi is a historian and world traveler engaged in a life long love affair with Africa. He is very active Online and is the editor, with Dr. Ivan Van Sertima, of the African Presence in Early Asia. Runoko is currently coordinating an educational-cultural tour to Peru in November 2004 entitled "Looking at Peru through African Eyes."

For information on the tour and/or to follow Runoko's doings please visit his award winning Global African Presence Web Site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html





As I am now a few days between international trips I thought that it might be a good idea to take the time to write another travel note. And since I will taking my first tour group to Peru come November 2004 this seems like the perfect opportunity for me to post a brief summary of my 2001 trip there. Believe it or not, there is an African presence in Peru. Indeed, unlike some travelers and scholars, I would contend that, with the exception of Brazil, the African presence in Latin America is not invisible, it simply has not been sufficiently explored and documented.

As a bit of background, I can tell you that I first remember becoming aware of the African presence in Peru about twenty years ago. I was watching a weight lifting competition during the Olympic Games when I noticed a Black man on the Peruvian team. My first reaction was, Wow! We really are everywhere!

But the big revelation came in July 1999 as a participant and keynote speaker at the Second International Reunion of the African Family in Latin America. This was a truly historic gathering and was held in the Maroon community of San Jose de Barlovento, Venezuela. The theme of the Reunion was "People with an Ancient Past Working in the Present for a Glorious Future." The Reunion was sponsored by Afro America XXI and lasted for a week. It was both one of the greatest events that I have ever participated in and one of my finest hours. All of the forums were wonderful and while doing the presentations I was in top form. During the height of the Conference I did keynote presentations on three consecutive nights. The first presentation was on the "African Presence in America before Columbus." The second was on "Ancient African Empires." And the third and biggest of them all was entitled, "Unexpected Faces in Unexpected Places: The Global African Presence." I will never forget how after the last presentation the various national delegations lined up to shake my hand and have take their photographs taken with me. And then the very last delegate and the oldest person in attendance, a small Black woman from Jamaica, walked up with great dignity and embraced me and told how proud "your mother is of you." We were both overcome with emotion and I confess that I cried for a long time that night.

This Reunion brought together African people from as far away as Ethiopia but the vast majority of the attendees were Africans from the Western Hemisphere. Indeed, from North America came African people from Canada, the United States, Mexico and the Caribbean. From Central America came Africans from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. And from South America itself emerged sisters and brothers from Bolivia, Ecuador, Brazil, Guyana, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Columbia and the host nation Venezuela, and Peru.

Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the Reunion was the revelation that many of these sisters and brothers seemed completely unaware that African people lived in the neighboring countries. And this was the first time that I met African people from Peru.

With this background in mind, for ten days in June 2001 I toured Peru and found it to be a fascinating place. I had already been to Brazil, Venezuela and Guyana but I was hungry for more and Peru was my first destination on South America's western side. To begin with, the museums were excellent and I was astounded by the Africoid features of many of the Moche portrait vases. And the churches and cathedrals weren't bad either. First of all, there were a lot of them and I was especially impressed with the Church and Monastery of Santo Domingo with its life-sized statue of the black St. Martin de Porres. And who could ever forget the sacred Urubamba Valley and the mysterious city of Machu Picchu? And equally impressive, perhaps even more so, were the ceremonial centers of Sacsayhuaman and the ancient urban complex of Ollantaytambo.


Contrary to popular belief, the first Africans to come to Peru did not come as captives, that is enslaved people. Rather, the country that is now called Peru in all likelihood became home to many of the first waves of Blacks who crossed into the Western Hemipshere tens of thousands of years ago. We have already found the bones of these ancient Blacks in Bolivia, Ecuador and Brazil. Why would Peru be an exception? And then there is the Moche civilization.

Peru is probably the most archaeologically rich country in South America and one of the most important phases of its history is the Moche period. The Moche (or Mochica), a militaristic people little known to all but a few of us, erected their empire along the Peruvian coast around 100 C.E. and were not eclipsed for seven hundred years. They built their capital in the middle of the desert around what is now the city of Trujillo. It featured the enormous pyramid temples of the Huaca del Sol and Huaca de la Luna (The temples of the Sun and the Moon). The Temple of the Sun, one of the most impressive adobe structures ever built in the Western Hemisphere, was composed of over a hundred million mud bricks.

The Moche roads and system of way stations are thought to have been an early inspiration for the Inca network. The Moche increased the coastal population with extensive irrigation projects and skillful engineering works were carried out, such as the La Cumbre canal, still in use today, and the Ascope aqueduct, both on the Chicama River.

Perhaps the greatest achievement of the Moche was their art, especially their amazingly life like portrait vases. In June 2001 I managed to view a number of these Moche pieces in the Lima museums, many of them so Africoid that I thought that they could have easily been manufactured in the Congo. I am talking here about vase after vase after vase. Indeed, based on this artistic evidence alone one could say that the Moche are among ancient America's best kept secrets.


Although some Africans came to Peru with the Spanish invaders as soldiers and translators, beginning in the sixteenth century significant numbers of enslaved Africans were being taken to Peru. During the 1550s there were an estimated three thousand enslaved Africans in Peru, about half of them residing in Lima. And wherever there are enslaved people one can also find slave resistance. Colonial Peru is no exception here and the one name that seems to most personify that resistance is Francisco Congo. He must have been extraordinary man and I am trying diligently to find information on him.

Because of its geography and the fact that Peru was not on the direct colonial slave trade routes (mostly on the Atlantic Ocean) the majority of Africans in Peru were not brought over directly from Africa but were bought from the British, Dutch and Portuguese after they were already in the Americas. Even under the background of poverty and enslavement, however, some of these Africans achieved great distinction. One such person was Martin de Porres.

Martin de Porres, eventually to become St. Martin de Porres, was born December 9, 1579 in Lima, Peru. He was the son of a Spanish nobleman and a freed African slave mother. At age eleven, he became a servant in the Dominican priory. Promoted to almoner, he begged for more than $2,000.00 a week from the rich to support the poor and sick of Lima. Placed in charge of the Dominican's infirmary Martin became famous for his "tender care of the sick and for his spectacular cures." Because of him the Dominicans dropped the stipulation that "no black person may be received to the holy habit or profession of our order" and Martin took his vows as a Dominican brother.

For Lima's poor Martin de Porres established both an orphanage and a children's hospital. And, interestingly enough, he set up a shelter for stray dogs and cats and nursed them back to health. He lived in self-imposed austerity, never ate meat, fasted continuously, and spent much time in meditation and prayer.

In 1639 Martin de Porres died of fever. He has been venerated since the day of his death. He was beatified in 1873 and canonized on May 16, 1962. He is the first African-American saint.


Today, the African presence in Peru numbers about two million people out of a total population of about twenty-three million. During my visit, however, I saw only a handful of these sisters and brothers. I did manage, with some expenditure of effort, though, to find one African taxi driver, brother Enrique. Unfortunately, the only words of English that brother Enrique ever uttered were "Black power" but that was enough for me to hire him. I saw no Africans working in the airport, in the markets, in the museums, in the banks, in the hotels or on TV.

So, the reports of pervasive and rampant anti-African racism in Peru will not come as much of a surprise to us. What else is new? According to one account, "It is systematic and permanent. It goes from patronizing attitudes to outright discrimination: blacks are dirty, thieves, all the stereotypes." In August 1996 New York Times correspondent Calvin Sims documented some of the racial bias directed against Africans in Peru, pointing out that:

"Although nightclubs feature Afro-Peruvian musical groups and a third of Peruvian soccer players are black, the number of black professionals is estimated at fewer than 400, and there are no black executives of Peruvian companies, no blacks in the diplomatic corps, judiciary, or the high ranks of the clergy or military. The country's even smaller Japanese community has produced the current President, but no black politician has risen even as far as Congress.

While incidents of open discrimination are far less common in Peru than in the United States and Brazil, which has the largest black population in Latin America, Peruvian blacks say they encounter racism daily.

In public, they say, they are frequently called derogatory names like `son of coal' or `smokeball.' At job interviews, they say, they are often told that their experience and references are excellent but that the owners are looking to hire people with `good presence'-- a euphemism for someone who is white."


In spite of all that, perhaps even because of it, I tell you now that I am looking forward to returning to Peru in November 2004 and I want to take you with me. I want to see a lot more of the Moche and their marvelous portrait vases. And this time I will be visiting both the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of the Moon. And I am going to enter more churches and cathedrals, where I understand that in addition to statues of Black Saints there are depictions of Black Christs as well. And this time I will be accompanied by local African activists and will visit the African community of Chincha, south of Lima. And, of course, I will be returning to Cusco and Machu Picchu high in the Andes Mountains.

So come along with me. Join me and get your education. Come along with me as we further document the global African presence and write one more chapter in the greatest story never told.

May 10, 2004

*Runoko Rashidi is a traveler and historian engaged in a love affair with African people. He is very active Online and is the moderator of the Global African Presence egroup. He is currently coordinating an educational-cultural tour to Peru scheduled for November 2004 entitled "Looking at Peru through African Eyes."

For more information on Runoko and all of his travels please visit Runoko's award winning Global African Presence Web Site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html










"We have made our contribution to the fund of human knowledge by extending the frontiers of art, culture and spiritual values."

-- Dr. Kwame Nkrumah

If we have lost touch with what our forefathers discovered and knew, this has been due to the system of education to which we were introduced. This system of education prepared us for a subservient role to Europe and things European. It was directed at estranging us from our own cultures in order the more effectively to serve a new and alien interest.

The central myth in the mythology surrounding Africa is that of the denial that we are a historical people.
It is said that whereas other continents have shaped history and determined its course, Africa has stood still, held down by inertia. Africa, it is said, entered history only as a result of European contact.
Its history, therefore, is widely felt to be an extension of European history. Hegel's authority was lent to this a-historical hypothesis concerning Africa. And apologists of colonialism and imperialism lost little time in seizing upon it and writing wildly about it to their heart's content.

To those who say that there is no documentary source for that period of African history which pre-dates the European contact, modern research has a crushing answer. We know that we were not without a tradition of historiography, and, that this is so, is now the verdict of true Africanists. African historians, by the end of the 15th century, had a tradition of recorded history, and certainly by the time when Mohamud al-Kati wrote Tarikh al-Fattash. This tradition was incidentally much, much wider than that of the Timbuktu school of historians, and our own Institute of African Studies here at this University, is bringing to light several chronicles relating to the history of Northern Ghana.

The Chinese, too, during the T'ang dynasty (AD.
618-907), published their earliest major records of Africa. In the 18th century, scholarship connected Egypt with China; but Chinese acquaintance with Africa was not only confined to knowledge of Egypt. They had detailed knowledge of Somaliland, Madagascar and Zanzibar and made extensive visits to other parts of Africa.

The European exploration of Africa reached its height in the 19th century. What is unfortunate, however, is the fact that much of the discovery was given a subjective instead of an objective interpretation. In the regeneration of learning which is taking place in our universities and in other institutions of higher learning, we are treated as subjects and not objects.
They forget that we are a historic people responsible for our unique forms of language, culture and society.
It is therefore proper and fitting that a Congress of Africanists should take place in Africa and that the concept of Africanism should devolve from and be animated by that Congress.

Between ancient times and the 16th century, some European scholars forgot what their predecessors in African Studies had known. This amnesia, this regrettable loss of interest in the power of the African mind, deepened with growth of interest in the economic exploitation of Africa. It is no wonder that the Portuguese were erroneously credited with having erected the stone fortress of Mashonaland which, even when Barbossa, cousin of Magellan, first visited them, were ruins of long standing.


Yiddish vs. Hebrew (Y vs. H, Jewish vs. Hamitic)

"Yiddish Language, chief vernacular of Ashkenazic Jews, who are native to, or who have antecedents in, eastern and central Europe. One of the Germanic languages, Yiddish is written in Hebrew characters (some of them used differently than for writing Hebrew). Yiddish (meaning "Jewish") arose between the 9th and 12th centuries in southwestern Germany as an adaptation of Middle High German dialects to the special needs of Jews. To the original German were added those Hebrew words that pertained to Jewish religious life. Later, when the bulk of European Jewry moved eastward into areas occupied predominantly by Slavic-speaking peoples, some Slavic influences were acquired. The vocabulary of the Yiddish spoken in eastern Europe during recent times comprised about 85 percent German, 10 percent Hebrew, and 5 percent Slavic, with traces of Romanian, French, and other elements. Many English words and phrases entered Yiddish, becoming an integral part of the language as it is spoken in the U.S. and other English-speaking countries. Apart from vocabulary changes, modern Yiddish differs from modern German mainly in the simplification of inflections and syntax, the acquisition of a few grammatical traits influenced by Slavic speech, and its looser pronunciation of Germanic words. Yiddish pronunciation was also significantly influenced by Slavic languages. In its word formation and use of auxiliary verbs Yiddish is similar to English, which also is a Germanic language with a simplified grammar and a variously enriched vocabulary.

Yiddish exists in two groups of dialects, one of which is further subdivided. The western dialect, with few speakers, is centered in German-speaking areas of western Europe. The more widely distributed eastern group has a northeastern branch and a southern branch. The northeastern branch includes the Yiddish spoken in the Baltic countries and in the northwestern areas of Russia, and by Jewish immigrants or descendants from those areas. The southern branch-which has central and southeastern subgroups-includes the dialects spoken in Poland, Romania, and Ukraine."


Microsoft® Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia. © 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation

Jewish (Yiddish) translations and transliterations of Paleo Cushite Hebrew, Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew form the basis of the religious beliefs of millions of people worldwide.  Yet Paleo Cushite Hebrew, Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew was as foreign to the Jewish translators as Spanish is to me—even though Spanish is written using the same alphabets used to write the English that I speak.  Thus is important to note that nothing can make people deny and defy obvious truth more than religion.  But thank God Almighty that truth is, more often than not, independent of what we believe, or what our religion has taught us to believe.

In a message dated 6/6/2003 12:28:17 AM Eastern Standard Time, EMANSMYRNA writes:


6. Hebrew ceased to be spoken by the common people during the Babylonian captivity. It was practically a "dead language" as early as B. C. 250. In the absence of expressed vowels, its pronunciation was likely to become lost. So the Scribes took four consonants, "a h w and j," and inserted them into the text to indicate the vowel sounds. While this device helped to some extent, in the end it led to confusion, often raising the question: "Is this letter a consonant, belonging to the original, or is it a vowel-letter, added by the Scribes?" Moreover the insertion of these vowel-letters did not prove sufficient; then, as late as 600-800 A. D., a whole system of vowel-signs was added, most elaborately indicating the vowels of each word as tradition had preserved it. These vowel-signs were interlinear, and therefore did not confuse the text, as did the vowel-letters. With vowel-signs we might indicate the pronunciation of Gen. 1:1, as given above, something like this (separating the words) :"



"Additionaly, the letters 'Y' and 'V' are frequently inserted in modern unpointed Hebrew to make reading easier, this is called full pointing and gives rise to alternate spellings.  Foreign words are often partially pointed to indicate the pronounciation.  The rules of pointing are very strict and complicated.  They were introduced in the early Middle Ages to aid pronounciation in a language that largely died out in spoken form; the Hebrew of the Bible and the Talmud is not pointed, though the later commentaries are."

Page 159-160, Hebrew Phrase Book and Dictionary, Berlitz


The first article tells us that, to save the Hebrew language from certain death, the scribes inserted certain letters to point to a particular vowel sound.  Though that may have appeared as something new, it was only a new version of an old pointing used when Hebrew was originally developed from the theophoric Hamitic Ethiopian language.  Thus to save at least a written form of Hebrew, the scribes had to revert back to the roots of the language.  For instance, most Hebrew scholars mistakenly interpret YHWH to mean Yahweh.  The truth is that the 'Y' points to the vowel sound 'E' and the 'W' points to the vowel sound 'U'.  Thus the true interpretation of YHWH is He-hu.  The God was called He-hu and the people who worshipped the God were called He-hu-ba-ru.  One of the original Hamitic Ethiopian names for Jehovah was He-hu-ba.  I can't be sure of how the 'B' sound became 'V', but surely that was one of the original Hamitic Ethiopian names for Jehovah.  In Exodus 6:3, we learned that God was not known to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as Jehovah, but as God Almighty.  That tells us that the most original name of the God of the Hebrews was simply He.  Remember that, in the theophoric Hamitic Ethiopian language, He meant infinite, which also means unlimited and almighty.

During the Babylonian captivity of Israel, many Indo-European members of the Middle-East Hebrew family were assimilated into Babylonian society.  After the captivity, many of those who had been assimilated migrated towards western Europe—while those who kept the faith written in Cushite Hebrew went back to build the temple in Jerusalem (originally known in Pale Cushite Hebrew as Heru-sa-tem).  The Indo-European members of the Hebrew family that traveled westward came under the influence of the Germanic languages.  Thus the new language that was being developed in Babylon by assimilated Indo-European Hebrews became the Germanic language now known as Yiddish, or the Jewish language.  Therefore, in a European dominated world, these Yiddish speaking people became the people the world turned to for the purpose of translating Paleo Cushite, Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew.  Thus the Jews became the world's leading authorities in such translations and transliterations.

Starting with YHWH and YHWS', let us take a look at how the Yiddish speaking people developed their translations and transliterations of Paleo Cushite, Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew:


Note, in the picture above, that the letters are written from right to left.  But when using English alpha bets written from left to right, it reads YHWH and YHWS'.  As stated earlier, pointing to vowel was present in Paleo Cushite, Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew long before the Yiddish form of pointing was developed.  Thus, in YHWH, the Y pointed to an E sound and the W pointed to the U sound, and in Paleo Hebrew, the name was pronounced He-hu.  Though the Yiddish translators had some knowledge of the ancient system of pointing borrowed from the Hieroglyphs of the Hamitic language, they translated YHWH as Yahweh.  Now let us take a look at YHWS', the Hebrew name Jesus gave himself.  Note that it contains a W that would point to an U sound after the S.  The last letter ' is , which is ayin, a guttural sound that is generally transliterated as an A sound.  The use of guttural sounds as vowels and glottal stops also derived from the Hamitic language of the hieroglyphs.  YHWS' also contains an S, which was mistakenly interpreted to be an SH sound.  That is easily understood when we see the Hebrew letters for S and SH, = sin = S, = shin = SH.  The position of the dot that distinguish between the S and SH was not present in the Hebrew of the time of Jesus. Yet many Yiddish translators translated YHWS' to be Yahshua and sometimes Yehshua or Yeshua.  But what happened to  , the W?  Note that it is used in YHWH to yield Yahweh, but is not used likewise in YHWS'.  In YHWS', they reverted back to the ancient system of using W to point to a U sound.  Thus the S (which some interpret to be SH) is followed by a U.  Some Yiddish translators tried to tried to cover up not using W in YHWS' as it is used in YHWH by translating YHWS' to be Yahushua.  Such a translation of W could have only come from someone who knew that W was originally used to point to U sound in the Hu of He-hu (YHWH).  Therefore, it should be clear that the name Jesus gave himself was He-sa or He-u-sa, which, in the Hebrew of his day, could have been interpreted as Eesua—seeing that , the Hebrew letter for H, was also used for an E sound.  That is also the reason why the Arabic transliteration of the name Jesus gave himself is found written as both Eesa and Esa.  Using Shua in the translation Yahshua or Yahushua no doubt derived from efforts to clearly identify Jesus with being the Messiah, which derive from the Hamitic term Maa-shua.

By: Emmanuel Afraka




Though all sort of tropical plants and flowers may have grown there 7,500 years ago, today the Garden of Eden is not a garden at all.  It is a rather harsh land that on the eastern border of the greatest swamp on earth called the Sudd.  The Sudd is the physically manifestation of Nu, the watery mass of Creation.  Since the Sudd is quite possibly the watery mass in which all life on earth began, it could truthfully be said that the Hamitic Ethiopians came out of the watery mass of Creation where all life began.  The Garden of Eden is also known as the land of the Nuer tribe-situated in southwest Sudan and west of present day Ethiopia.  Even until today, the Nuer still adorn their huts with the watery hieroglyphic symbol for Nu-as well as other symbols that were used in the development of the original Hamitic Ethiopian hieroglyphs.  The Nuer also hold an important clue as to what is the actual object that symbolizes Neter.   Neter implies God on earth or God that came out of Nu to reign on earth, which the Hamitic Ethiopians no doubt pronounced as Nu-te-ra or Nu-te-ru instead of Neter.  There are many Egyptologists who believe that the symbol for Neter is an axe.  Recently a few Egyptologists have form the opinion that it is actually a roll of cloth attached to a stick or handle.  The latter opinion is much closer to the truth. The Nuer had a custom of adorning their huts with distinctive ornaments that served as the family-crest of a given family.  The Hamitic Ethiopians adopted this custom to identify the hut of God on earth (Heru) and also the huts of the sons of God (the direct descendants of Heru).  Only the Hamitic Ethiopians used a roll of cloth attached to a pole to fly over the hut as a flag.  They were perhaps the inventors of the first flag used to identify a king or kingdom.

From a land east of the Garden of Eden, armed with the Gospel of Heru, the twelve Hamitic Ethiopian tribes of Heru set out to propagate his gospel around the world (Genesis 3:24 and 4:16).  South they traveled into Central Africa and possibly even South Africa.  East they traveled into Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Yemen, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, and the Bay of Bengal.  North they traveled into Nubia, Egypt, and the Middle-East.  I don't find much evidence of them traveling west.  All I've found is God warning Adam (or Heru) to stay on the east border because of a prophesied evil that would develop among his seed in the west (Page 35, Forgotten Books of Eden).  This was no doubt a prophecy of African people being brought to the Americas as slaves and, afterward, becoming apart of the evil system of their slave masters and equally wicked and ungodly.


In Genesis 6:4, Moses tells us that the sons of God were giants.  In Deuteronomy 3:11, he tells us that King Og was the last of these giant Hamitic Ethiopians to be found in the Middle-East.  The giant Hamitic Ethiopians were no doubt the product of marriages between Dinka, Nuer, Hamar, Moru and perhaps even Shilluk, which no doubt went on for thousands of years before producing Heru, as the genetic perfection of all their best genetic contributions.   Rwanda and Burundi provides us with a living picture of the physical appearance of the ancient Hamitic Ethiopians.

"History textbooks might snub this connection.  But we derived it from the direct observation of our friends the Giant Watussi of Rwanda.  And these tallest, handsomest, keenest of all Africans, undoubtedly are the purest "Surviving Pharaohs" on earth."
When and why the far ancestors of the Watussi left Ancient Egypt still is a matter of speculation.  How they managed to reach Rwanda and there to maintain intact all the essential traits of their race, is another of the many question marks presented by Central Africa.

At any rate, the incontrovertible fact is that there the Giant Watussi are, in the middle of vast masses of Bantu natives, like a small unique island of thoroughbred Hamites.

Pages 138-139, "Here Is Africa," Ellen and Attilio Gatti


The giant Hamitic Ethiopians (Watutsi) of Rwanda and Burundi also give us a living picture of the ungodly philosophy of racial superiority that spawn the Hamitic curse that has ultimately fallen upon the entire Black race.  Though it is popular belief that the Watutsi only migrated from Ethiopia to Rwanda and Burundi in the 14th or 15th century A.D., the truth is that Hamitic Ethiopians have been living in that region of Central Africa for more than 7,000 years.  Thus for thousands of years, the Watutsi, Hutu, and pygmies (Twa) of the region lived in please-even to the point that many of the people now classified as Watutsi are part Hutu and vice versa.  Yet many of the Watutsi retained the perfect physical Hamitic Ethiopian form of Heru (also known as Osiris, the Lord of the Perfect Black).   In search of another place on earth were the Prefect Black could still be found in its purest form, many giant Hamitic Ethiopians migrated from Ethiopia to Rwanda and Burundi in the 14th or 15th century A.D.  They brought with them all the elements that were the source of the Hamitic curse.  They taught the resident giant Hamitic Ethiopians that they were superior to their Hutu and Twa neighbors, and therefore had a god given right to make these inferior people their servants and slaves.  Thus the recent conflicts between the Watutsi and Hutu, and the Hutu genocidal campaigns against the Watutsi also give us a living picture of God's wrath against the ungodly philosophy of racial superiority.   The ungodly philosophy of racial superiority introduced into Rwanda and Burundi by a Hamitic Ethiopian faction and the servitude and slavery that accompanies it is the same thing that certain Hamitic Ethiopia factions did in Egypt thousands of years earlier.  History repeats itself until someone sees the truth and teaches the solution.

Genesis 9:21-25 tells us that a curse was placed on a descendant of Ham because Ham laughed at the drunkenness and nakedness of his father Noah.  The truth of that story has more to do with a Hamitic Ethiopian faction that promoted an ungodly philosophy of Hamitic Ethiopian racial superiority.  Thus they laughed at Noah's failed attempt to establish the Gospel of Heru and the Divine Science therein among an inferior race of Oriental people that lived along the Bay of Bengal.  Since there is no such thing as a superior race or an inferior race, a curse fell the descendants of Ham that has ultimately fallen upon the entire Black race.  However, it is important to note any and all ungodly philosophies of racial superiority are eternally condemned no matters who promotes it-as the Europeans will soon see.

As for the Black race, there is no need to despair.   Jesus told us clearly that our curse will be brought to an end.  You are currently willing in the time when Jesus' promises and prophecies concerning us will be fulfilled.


"And there shall be No More Curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him:"


"And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood [which is the Hamitic Ethiopian blood of Heru] out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;"
"And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth."

It is truth that the Everlasting Gospel of Heru, which is currently being restored, will redeem us out of kindred, tongue, people, and nation that have held us in subhuman and inferior circumstances, as though we are an inferior race of people.  It is also true that it was God's plan that the sons and daughters of Heru should reign on earth.  But God's plan also includes the spiritual sons and daughters of Heru and not just the biological ones.  Furthermore, God's plan to have the sons and daughters of Heru reign on earth has nothing at all to do with a reign through force or military might.  Neither does it have anything to do with us subjugating other races of people or any other ethnic or cultural group and making them our slaves.  The reign that God had in mind is a reign through service and example to humanity-the most powerful and everlasting reign possible.  As the firstborn of Creation and the first loved of the Heavenly Father, it has always been the responsibility of his sons and daughters to lead the rest of humanity into path of self-realization and liberation.  Self-realization is where and when a human being can truly recognize his or her self as a forever-living son or daughter of God himself.


Hundreds of years before the first Hamitic Ethiopian dynasty was established in Memphis many of the Hamitic Ethiopian descendants of Heru had already settled in the Middle-East.  Once there, they established a holy city they named Heru-sa-tem, which is known today as Jeru-sa-lem.  Heru-sa-tem meant that Heru's blood (or sons) were sealed in that land, and was therefore one of the cities in heaven.  Because the Cushites of Ethiopia and Nubia traveled to the Middle-East with and after them, as members of the Hamitic language group, it is sometime very difficult to tell where one group left off and the other picked up.  However, it is clear that the presents of both these groups in the Middle-East as diversified dialects of a single language group is the source of what is written in Genesis 11:1 concerning the entire earth having once been one language.

"The Hamitic subfamily is generally considered to include ancient Egyptian and its descendant, Coptic; the Berber languages; and the Cushitic languages. Ancient Egyptian and Coptic are extinct. Some linguists also place the Chad languages within the Hamitic subfamily. Those Hamitic tongues are or were spoken in N Africa, much of the Sahara, the Horn of E Africa, and parts of central and W Africa. They were named after Ham, the second son of the biblical Noah, whose descendants supposedly were the original speakers of the Hamitic languages

The name Cushitic is derived from Cush, a son of Ham. The two principal Cushitic languages are Oromo, the tongue of 20 million people in Ethiopia and Kenya, and Somali, spoken by 9 million people in Somalia, Ethiopia, and Djibouti. Among the many other Cushitic languages are Saho-Afar, Agau, Beja, Burji, Geleba, Gimira, Janjero, Konso, Kaffa, Maji, and Sidamo. Oromo is written in the Ethiopic script; Somali, in the Roman alphabet.

Source: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0858548.html

Though the author states that the Hamitic language was named after Ham and The Cushitic after Cush, the true is that name Ham was used to associate one of Noah's sons with Hamitic culture and Cush was used to associate one of his later descendants with Cushite culture.  Also note that the author states that all the descendants of Noah spoke the same Hamitic language.  Though Heru and his more immediate descendants were the original speakers of the original Hamitic language, the author's observation well help to disprove the belief that Japheth was associated with Europeans or Indo-Europeans.

"Hamito-Semitic languages , family of languages spoken by more than 200 million people in N Africa; much of the Sahara; parts of E, central, and W Africa; and W Asia (especially the Arabian peninsula, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel). Since four of the Hamito-Semitic tongues, Arabic, Hebrew, Coptic, and Syriac, are also respectively the languages of Islam, Judaism, and two sects of the Christian faith, the language family reaches many millions in addition to its native speakers.

Traditionally, the Hamito-Semitic language family is said to have two subfamilies: Semitic and Hamitic. Although some scholars regard Hamitic and Semitic as two distinct language families, they possess a number of grammatical similarities and have a larger common vocabulary than borrowing would account for. The most satisfactory explanation is that the Hamitic and Semitic groups, despite their divergences, are subfamilies of a single Hamito-Semitic linguistic family, as evidenced by their marked grammatical, lexical, and phonological resemblances.

The languages of the Hamito-Semitic family are thought to have first been spoken along the shores of the Red Sea.
Another theory holds that the Hamito-Semitic, or Afroasiatic, language family came into being in Africa, for only in Africa are all its members found, aside from some Semitic languages encountered in W Asia. The existence of the Semitic languages in W Asia is explained by assuming that the Semites of Africa migrated from E Africa to W Asia in very ancient times. At a later date, some Semites returned from Arabia to Africa."

About the very same time the Hamitic Ethiopian descendants of Heru were establishing their first dynasty in Memphis his Hamitic Ethiopian descendants in the Middle-East were laying the foundation for the first Babylonian empire-north of Heru-sa-tem.  
"Ham - warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black", the youngest son of Noah…

One of the most important facts recorded in Gen. 10 is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6, 8, 10). The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia. (See ACCAD ).

The race of Ham were the most energetic of all the descendants of Noah in the early times of the post-diluvian world."

Source: http://www.htmlbible.com/kjv30/easton/east1601.htm

"Accad - the high land or mountains, a city in the land of Shinar. It has been identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to the north of Babylon; but this is doubtful. It was one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom (Ge 10:10). It stood close to the Euphrates, opposite Sippara.

It is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia. The Accadians who came from the
"mountains of the east," where the ark rested, attained to a high degree of civilization. In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called "the black heads" and "the black faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent. They invented the form of writing in pictorial hieroglyphics, and also the cuneiform system, in which they wrote many books partly on papyrus and partly on clay. The Semitic Babylonians ("the white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country; and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated classes of Babylonia."

Source: http://www.htmlbible.com/kjv30/easton/east0060.htm

Note that the author stated that the black face Hamitic Ethiopians of the original Babylon came from the Mountains of the east, where the ark rested.  But Mt. Ararat is to the northwest of Babylon.  So why are there two different theories about where the ark came to rest?  The Biblical version of the ark coming to rest on Mt. Ararat is born out of a straight out lie told by Indo-Europeans (probably of Aryan descent) to begin campaign of promoting their ungodly philosophy of white supremacy.  For what better way to propagate such a philosophy than to convince Indo-European that they had received a commission from God to replenish and rule the earth.  It is too bad that Moses didn't see the racism behind the Mt. Ararat lie, or someone else tampered with his writings. Thank God Almighty that, before Moses, I AM.  The other theory that the ark came to rest on a mountain east of Babylon gave birth to the name Hindu-Kush at a much later date.  It may very well have resulted from a comprise made the defenders of the Cushite legacy and Hindi speaking Aryans.  The key to understanding the truth is in remembering that the word Ham was also associated with south.  Though the story of Noah did indeed occur in the east, it occurred much further east than Hindu-Kush, and was brought to the Middle-East from the south by Hamitic Ethiopians. 


A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming;
published by Xlibris,
436 Walnut Street, 11 Floor
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106 U.S.A.
1(888) 795-4274
1(215) 923-4686


"The Faith, Power and Struggle of a People"

     In these times when the questions and concerns about the right of
some to make symbolic statements (eg cross burnings, confederate flags,
ect..) is being debated and when historical trends of a dark era in
American history seems by some to be repeating, the book, "A History of
Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," is one of the most
powerful books written on the origins and developoment of racism from
ancient times to the present and how retaliation, rebellion and
revolution against racism was crucial to saving the existance of Blacks
around the world.  The book begins wih how and why racism or "color
consciouisness" or "varna" was invented in one particular nation that
has had a racist system intertwined with religion for over three
thousand years.  It looks at how invaders from Eurasia invaded the
glorious Black Cushic Dravidian-Ethiopic civilization of the Indus
Valley and used the religion and culture of India's ancient Black
Negro-Australoid people to subjugate them.  This series of invasions
began about 1700 B.C., the same time that the Hyksos and other
Eurasian/Semitic barbarians were infiltrating Egypt and the "Middle
Eastern" Black civilizations such as Sumer, Elam and Mesopotamia.  These
invasions and genocide in India continued till the 300's B.C. (Read more
on this subject also from "Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African
Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth," pub. by www.1stbooks.com also at
www.barnesandnoble.com  One of the most important figures in Black
Cushic-Ethiopian East Indian history between 500 to 300 B.C. was Gautama
Bhudda of the Sakya Clan who contributed to the upliftment of the
oppressed castes in India.

Racism as a factor during the Greek and Roman times was not as
devastating to Blacks in the Roman, Greek or the regions they had
contact with.  In fact, both the Greeks and Romans saw the "Ethiopians"
(a term for all Black Africans) as the most accomplished people and as
the creators of culture and civilization.  The Romans and Greeks were
more concerned about the Slavs, Celtics, Germanics and other Europeans.
In fact, the Romans refused to carry out a war with Nubia/Cush because
their warriors were devastating to the Romans.  The Roman Garison at
Asan was destroyed by a Nubian Queen and the Roman statue was carried
off to Napata the Cushite capital (see
http://community.webtv.net/barnubianempire )

The book tracks the beginning of racism from the late Roman period in
Egypt when the Africans and others who refused to accept the Roman/Greek
version of Christianity were considered "infidels" or "pagan" a term
used today in the genocidal war against Africans carried out since the
600's A.D., by the Semites ("Arabs") in Sudan and other parts of Africa.

Racism throughout the writings of the Hebrews/Jews and those who
translated the Bible is carefull discussed in this great book.  In fact,
the myth called "The Curse of Ham," (which was actually on Canaan, the
father of most Middle Eastern and Southern European "whites,"), was used
to justify the invasion, colonialist agenda and enslavement of Blacks by
the Europeans as well as the Semites.  This idea of Blacks being slaves
of Shem and Japhet came from ancient corruptions of the Biblical


This great book takes a thorough look at how the English and other
Europeans designed a potent form of racism based on religion as well as
a system of surfdom that existed in Europe before African slavery.  In
fact, the book points out that some of the same racist techniques used
on Africans, such as refusing to educate and punishing Blacks for
reading was used on Irish surfs in Britain and Ireland during the Middle

The enslavement of Black tribes and nations who were in the Americas
before Columbus is well explained based on expert research.  This
finding uncovers a fact in European history, and that fact is that both
gold and Black slaves were being searched for by the early European
explorers.  Those Blacks aboriginal to the Americas, Melanesia, Africa,
India and elsewhere who had Negroid features were targeted for
enslavement.  Hence, millions of Blacks found in parts of the Americas
were enslaved even before Africans were brought to the Americas.  Some
of these Black American nations such as the Waschitaw Nation, the Black
Californians, the Afro-Darienite of Panama, the Califu of the Caribbean,
the Choco of Colombia, the Black Caribs of Honduras/Central America and
the many Black Nations mentioned by I. Rafinesque in his work, "Black
Nations of America," (Friends Society, Philadelphia 1833), were owners
of lands in the Americas.  In fact, the Waschitaw Nation of the
Louisiana region still continues their fight for their lands to this
very day. For a complete reference on the ancient Black nations of the
Americas, see the book, "A History of the African-Olmecs," pub. by
1stbooks Library, 2595 Vernal Pike, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 U.S.A.
www.1stbooks.com  also at www.barnesandnoble.com


The book emphasizes and discusses the fact that from the time Africans
were put on slaveships, they revolted, escaped slavery and created their
own separate communities throughout the Americas.  The revolution in
Haiti, the rebellions in Jamaica, Guyana, Cuba, Mexico, the Caribbean,
the Quilimbos in Brazil, the revolts throughout the Americas is
discussed in this great work.





The following speech was delivered by the AFRIKAN WORLD REPARATIONS
Maulana, 19 November, 2000, at the Accra Technical Training Centre, Accra,
Ghana West Africa.  Excerpts of that speech are cut herein below.


HISTORICAL FACTS-Genesis of Man and Humanity:  Science, today, has
proven that the Creator created the first human being (homo-sapien) on
Earth in Africa.  Fossil remains of Black Africoid peoples have been
found in East Africa by the renowned anthropologist family of Doctors
Richard and Mary Leakey.  These fossil remains have been radio-carbon
dated at 3.5 million years (Time Magazine March 14, 1994, page 45).
According to the Leakeys, this ancient Africoid human was walking
upright like modern man (Dr. Mary Leakey, Serronghetti Plains, Tanzania
where Fossils remains were found).     Humankind born around the Great
Lakes Region of Africa, almost on the Equator, is necessarily pigmented
and black.  The 'Gloger Law' calls for warm-blooded animals to be
pigmented in a hot and humid climate (Dr. Diop, Civilization or
Barbarism, page 11, Lawrence Hill Book, 1991 USA).    Also,
Palaeo-anthropological scientists have proven that the Black Africoid
race were the original people in Europe and Asia, from the Iberian
Peninsula (Spain & Portugal), to Lake Baykal in Russia's Siberia,
France, Austria, the Crimea (Southern Ukraine) and the Basin of Don
(South Central Russia) - Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, page 15; Dr.
Charles Finch III (M.D.), Echoes of the Old Darkland - Themes from the
African Eden, 1991, Kenti, Inc., USA.    Racial differentiation, that
is, the coming of the Aryan-White European race, did not come about on
Earth until after the last Ice Age (Around 26,000 years Before
Present).  The Palaeo-anthropological and genetical (scientific)
explanation for this race's genesis is that they are the product of a
mutation, coming from the Black Africoid genus during the last Ice
Age(Wurm 1 & 2 Ice Age). The geographical area of the world where this
evolutionary mutation took place was in Europe, Southern France, Spain
as well as the Caucasus Mountains of South west Asian.

For a better perspective and understanding of how the Aryan-White
race mutated out of the original Black Africoid race, please read: Dr.
Civilization or Barbarism, pages 11-25; Dr. Charles S. Finch 3rd.(M.D.),
Echoes of the Old Darkland, pages 1 through 57, and  John Jackson, Man,
and Civilization, pages 16 - 28, Carol Publishing Group, 1990, N.Y. USA.
    According to British anthropologist, Christopher Stringer, of
Britain's Natural History Museum:  Africa is the only region that has
continuity of evolution from primitive to modern humans - first modern
Europeans and Asians do not show up before 40,000 years Before Present
(B.P) -Times Magazine, March 14, 1994).    Also, geneticist, Dr. Luigi
Cavelli Sforza of Stanford University California, USA, states that the
Caucasoid (Aryan White) and Mongloid (Yellow race), did not come into
existence until about 26 thousand (26,000) years ago. They are both
products of the Black Africoid race's mutation during the last Ice Age
(Dr. Luigi Luca Cavalli Storza, New York Times Newspaper, July 27,
1993: article entitled  - "A geneticist maps Ancient Migration."
Moreover, Newsweek Magazine USA and International, January 11, 1988,
published the results of a twenty years genetic research project under
the title: "Search for Eve".  The front cover of this magazine and the
inside story revealed that 'Eve' was a small Black skinned woman,
dating back as far as 250 thousand years ago in Africa.  Adam was
depicted as a Black man.  The research analyis was done by extracting
the 'Mitochondrion DNA' from the female placenta of Black Africans,
Aryan-white, and the Mongloid yellow race as well all mixtures in
between. The black female was the oldest and strongest evidence amongst
the lot.    Ancient Greek poet Hesiod writes - there once was a "golden
race." "All good things, "Hesoid writes, "were theirs. The Fruitful
earth poured forth her fruits unbidden in bondless plenty.  In peaceful
ease they kept their lands with good abundance, rich in flocks and dear
to the immortals."  The golden race were the blacks and the golden age
was the period before the arrival of the Whiteman.  (Hesoid, Works and
Days, quoted in, John mansley Robinson, An Introduction to early Greek
philosophy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968, pp.12-12; from Paul L.
Guthrie, making of the Whiteman, page 22,1992, Beacon Communication,
San Diego, CA, USA) Around 15,000 years Before Present, interbreeding
between the Black Aficoid and the mutated Aryan-White European race
created the Chancellade man (prototype of the yellow race).  This
contact was first made around the Caspian Sea area (Caucacus
Mountains), during the Reindeer Period in the Magdalenian-age (Diop,
Civilization or Barbarism, page 16)

proven by numerous scientists of various disciplines that the oldest
civilization known in the Americas, the Oldmec, was of Black Africoid
origin.  The Oldmec was the parent culture and science of the Maya,
Aztec et al.  This civilization flourished at least five thousand years
or beyond, Before the Christian Era (John Jackson, Man, God, and
Civilization, page 288).  The Black Oldmec Civilization was
ethnologically connected to Africa's Nile Valley Civilization (Ancient
Kush, Nubia and Egypt, Diop, Nations, Negres et Culture, page 116).
They were noted in the Americas for their high order of Mathematics,
Pyramids and the Calendar.

The disappearance
extinction of these ancient Black Africoid peoples in Europe (6,000
years ago); Asia (2500 B.C.E._800B.C.E.) and the Americas (3,000
B.C.E.), has come about only as a result of the mutated Aryan-White
European race's barbaric assaults of genocide, against Black Africoid
Civilization in those regions. (Diop, Civilization or Babarism, page
19).   Thus, many of the Black Africoid peoples who survived these
barbaric assaults, after centuries or even millenniums of fighting
against these invading hordes of Aryan-Whites, coming from the steppes
of the Caucasus Mountains; they were forced to flee back to their
ancestral Motherland Continent, Africa, for safety.

thank and honor one European-American writer and researcher, Gerald
Massey (1828-1907), for such profound scholarship and honesty in
writing his book:  Ancient Egypt:  The Light of the World, First
Published 1907 - Again, published 1992 by Black Classic Press,
Baltimore, MD. 21203 USA.  In this book, Massey shows indisputable
proof that Western and Eastern Civilizations, today, were founded and
are operating on the sciences and philosophy of Ancient Egypt, Above
all, Massey proves that Ancient Egypt was created by an all Black
Africoid people whose roots lead back to the interior of the African
Continent around the Great Lakes (Khui (twi) Land) taken from Massey's
"Book of the Beginning").    Ancient Egypt's true name was Kamaat -
spiritual people of Truth, Justice, Law, Order and Righteousness (from
Teacher Maulana's abstract, the Theft of African Civilization:  And Its
Ramification Towards The Year 2001 A.D., Accra, 1997).

                          WORLD HISTORY LINKS


Blacked Out by White Wash    Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization     W. African Civilizations

  Correcting_Rewritten_History   MindStation X : Renaissance     Dr. Ivan Van Sertima

  Italy - Italian Renaissance - Zoological studies    Re: For Sale: A DNA Test to Measure Racial Mix

   KAM Africans in Early Europe   The TRUE Black History Home Page  

 European Crusades, Christianisation, and Colonisation West Africa

 William Greaves: Documenting The Truth In Film - Global Black News ...

African Contributions to World History   Sephardim and their History  The Iberian Golden Age, European Expansion

 Origins of Islamic Intolerence by Mark Silverberg   African American and Ancient Egyptians

  ANCIENT AFRICA AND EARLY ROME     The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Chapter II

   Great Homepage of Alexander, or Something Like That    Alexander The Great - Links

Alexander the Great on the Web     Alexander the Great History Project    Alexander was Great

The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe   History Timelines on the Web ... The History Beat

Information and facts about Cleopatra   History of Alexandria: Cleopatra  

 Queen Cleopatra - Last Pharaoh of Egypt - Queen Cleopatra VII    Raising the lost city of Cleopatra


 The House of Ptolemy: Caesar, Cleopatra, & Marcus Antonius  THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND

The Moors in Europe   Moor Info  Latin American Muslim Unity: History of Islam in Latin America

Adolf Hitler  Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler   Adolf Hitler   Adolf Hitler Table of Contents 

Hitler's Jewish Soldiers  Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust  Hitler Was Not An Atheist

 WAS HITLER A ROTHSCHILD      | The controversy of the occult reich   IS AMERICA

WALL STREET AND THE RISE OF HITLER   Hitler's Christianity   African Timelines Part II

 The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives

Hitler's Rise to Power   The OMEGA File : HITLER ESCAPED  Henry the Navigator

Dr Edward Scobie: African Presence in Early Britian: Dominica political figure

The African Presence in the Americas many centuries before Columbus



History of Lawful Gold and Silver



 From the Ambedkar Journal at http://www.dalitstan.org,
published by Thomas C. Mountain, 1997


The White tribes that invaded India and disrupted Black civilization
there are known as Aryans.  The Aryans were not necessarily superior
warriors to the Blacks but they were aggesssive, developed
military technologies and glorified military virtues.  After hundreds
years of intense martial conflict the Aryans succeeded in subjugating
most of northern India.  Throughout the vanquished territories a
caste-segmented social order was established with the masses of
conquered Blacks (called Shudras) essentially reduced to slaves to the
Whites and imposed upon for service in any capacity required by their
White conquerors.  This vicious new world order was cold-bloodely
racist, with the Whites on top, the mixed races in the middle, and the
overwhelming majority of Black people on the very bottom.  In fact,
Aryan term varna, denoting one's societal status and used
interchangeably with caste, literally means color or complexion and
reflects a prevalent racial hierarchy. Truly, India is still a racist
country.  White supremacist David Duke claimed "that his 1970's visit
India was a turning point in his views on the superiority of the White

Caste law in India, based originally on race, regulated all aspects of
life, including marriage, diet, education, place of residence and
occupation.  This is not to deny that there were certain elements of
Black aristocracy that managed to gain prominence in the dominant
social structure.  The masses of conquered Black people, however, were
regarded by the Whites as Untruth itself.  The Whites claimed to have
emerged from the mouth of God; the Blacks, on the other hand, were
to have emerged from the feet of God.  This was the ugly reality for
Black masses in conquered India.  It was written that:

"A Sudra [Black] who intentially reviles twice-born men [Whites] by
criminal abuse, or criminally assaults them with blows, shall be
deprived of the limb with which he offends.  If he has criminal
intercourse with an Aryan woman, his organ shall be cut off, and all
property confiscated.  If the woman has a protector, the Sudra shall
executed.  If he listens intentionally to a recitation of the Veda [a
traditional Hindu religious text], his tonque shall be cut out.  If he
commits them to memory his body shall be split in half."

Servitude to Whites became the basis of the lives of the Black people
of India for generation after generation after generation.  With the
passage of time, this brutally harsh, color-oriented, racially-based
caste system became the foundation of the religion that is now
throughout all India.  This is the religion known as Hinduism."


The greatest victims of Hinduism have been the Untouchables.  Indeed,
probably the most substantial percentage of all the Black people of
can be identified among India's 160 Untouchables.  These people are
long-suffering descendants of Aryan-Sudra unions and native Black
populations who retreated into the hinterlands of India in their
to escape the advancing Aryan sphere of influence to which they
ultimately succumbed.  India's Untouchables number more than the
combined populations of England, France, Belgium and Spain.

The existence of Untouchability has been justified within the context
of Hindu religious thought as the ultimate and logical extensions of
Karma and rebirth. Indus believe that persons are born Untouchables
because of the accumulation of sins in previous lives.  Hindu texts
describe these people as foul and loathsome, and any physical contact
with them was regarded as polluting.

Untouchables were usually forced to live in pitiful little settlements
on the outskirts of Hindu communities.  During certain periods in
history Untouchables were only allowed to enter the adjoining Hindu
communities at night.  Indeed, the Untouchables' very shadows were
considered polluting, and they were required to beat drums and make
noises to announce their approach.  Untouchables had to attach brooms
their backs to erase any evidence of their presence.  Cups were tied
around their necks to capture any spittle that might escape their lips
and contaminate roads and streets.  Their meals were taken from broken
dishes.  Their clothing was taking from corpses.  They were forbidden
learn to read and write, and were prohibited from listening to any of
the traditional Hindu texts.  Untouchables were denied access to
wells.  They cound not use ornaments and were not allowed to enter
temples.  The primary work of Untouchables included scavenging and
street sweeping, emptying toilets, the public execution of criminals,
the disposal of dead animals and human corpses, and the clean-up of
cremation grounds.  The daily life of the Untouchable was filled with
degradation, deprivation and humiliation.

 The basis status of India's Untouchables has changed littled since
ancient times, and it has recently been observed that "Caste Hindus do
not allow Untouchables to wear shoes, ride bicycles, use umbrellas or
hold their heads up while walking in the street."  Untouchables in
India are crowded together in squalid slums, while in rural India,
the vast majority of Untouchables live, they are exploited as landless
agricultural laborers and ruled by terror and intimidation.  As
of this, several cases from 1991 can be cited:  On June 23, 1991
fourteen Untouchables were slaughtered in the estern state of Bihar.
August 10, 1991 six Untouchables were shot to death in the northern
state of Uttar Pradesh.  On August 16, 1991, an Untouchable woman was
stripped in public and savagely beaten in the southern state of Andra
Pradesh.  On September 6, 1991, in the western state of Maharastra, an
Untouchable policeman was killed for entering a Hindu temple.
Indian figures on violent crimes by caste Hindus against Untouchables
have averaged more than 10,000 cases per year, with the figures
continuing to rise.  The Indian government listed 14,269 cases of
atrocities by caste Hindus against Untouchables in 1989 alone.
Indian human rights workers report that a large number of atrocities
against Untouchables, including beatings, gang-rapes, arson and
are never recorded.  Even when charges are formally filed, justice for
Untouchables is rarely dispensed.