Born in Kingston,Jamaica,West indies,moving to New York in 1967. Kool Herc owns the rights to the accolade "first Hip Hop D.J. Illustrating the connections between reggae and rap,Herc brought his sound system to block parties in the Bronx from 1969 onwards. By 1975 he was playing the brief rhythmic sections of records which would come to be termed "breaks",at venues like the Hevalo in the Bronx. His influence was pivotal,with Grandmaster Flash building on his innovations to customised the modern Hip Hop DJ approach.
The Funky Four~s background is an interesting one,with Lil` Rodney Cee having been part of the street-jivers the Magnificent Seven between 1977 and 1978. The Funky Four were founded when KK Rockwell and D.J. Breakout,adding first Keith Keith and then female MC Sha Rock. Rahiem joined,then departed to take up an engagement with Grandmaster Flash. Keith Keith also left. With the addition of Lil` Rodney Cee,then Jazzy Jeff,the group became the Funky Four,with D.J. Breakout and Baron.None of the group were older than 17 when they signed with the Enjoy label,opening that imprint`s account(in rap terms)with"Rappin` And Rocking The House".This utilized the Cheryl Lynn break,"Got To Be Real",over which a 16-minute rap commentary was placed.
The drums were programmed by Pumpkin,arguably rap`s first production hero,and it was an impressive overall introduction. Shortly afterwards they switched to Sugarhill,adding the Plus One More suffix.

In addition to this cast D.J. Mark The 45 King would act as Breakout`s record boy,locating and passing records up to the decks as his D.J. requested them. They made their debut for Sugarhill with "Thats The Joint",a song arranged by jazz-funk organist Clifton Jiggs Chase.

Their performances at Bronx house parties included full blown dance routines.After a clash album with the Cash Crew,their career petered out somewhat,through Jazzy Jeff would go on to a brief solo career with Jive Records. Lil` Rodney Cee and KK Rockwell would go on to be partners in follow under achievers,Double Trouble.At which time Rodney Cee would marry Angela(Angie B)Brown of Sequence fame.

Herc's methods also pre-dated,and partially introduced,sampling. By adapting pieces of Funk,Soul,Jazz and other musics into the melting pot,he would be able to keep a party buzzing. With his sound system the Herculords,he would tailor his sets to the participants,most of whom he knew by name. He would call these out over improvised sets; "As I scan the place,I see the very familiar face..of my mellow:Wallace Dee in the house! Wallace Dee! Freak for me! As one of Hip Hop's founding Fathers,Kool Herc's reputation and influence has outlasted the vaguaries of musical fashion. A status no doubt boosted by the fact that he has not attempted to launch a spurious recording career on the back of it. Kool Herc was the subject of celebration at the Rapmania Festival in 1990. Here are some words from the Father of Hip Hop: The first place I played was 1520  Sedgewick Avenue-that's a recreation room-matter of fact in my apartment,yunno. Like the pied piper,the rats came out of the bricks to dance. My parties back then was twenty-five cent, Then it went to the recreation room,then we gave a block party,one time,anual block party. When you come down the block that cleaned up,you know Herc gonna play some music,and um,I couldn't come back to the old ranch no more,I had to go to a place called the Twilight Zone.

And then I used to give flyers out over by the Hevalo,and my mans would tell me to step off. I said, "One day I"m be in here." So I gavemy first party at the Twilight Zone,it was raining,the gods was raining down on me. Everybody came down from the Hevalo,wondering what was happening. They said,"Hercis playing down the block." "Who's Herc?' "That's the guy you chased away with the flyers from outside." And from the Twilight Zone I went on up to the Hevalo...

(From there he moved to a spot called the Executive Playhouse,on 173 street in the Bronx,as well as playing numerous high schools,community centers,and parks.) Assuming his native Jamaican patois,he continues: My muddah roots come from St. Mary{a parish in Jamaica},yunno. A man named George inspirate I from Jamaica,yunno,and he lived pon Victoria Street,yunno and used to come with the big sound system. It was devastating,cause it was open air,when it rained that's the dance.... I did a lot of things from Jamaica,and I brought it here and turned it into my own little style...Herc came to prominence in the West Bronx between 1974 and 1975.





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The Universal Zulu Nation calls on the World to recognize the whole month of November as HIP HOP HISTORY MONTH!

The official birthday of the Universal Zulu Nation is November 12, 1973.

The official birthday of Hip Hop is November 12th, 1974.

With consideration to the above mentioned dates, nothing makes more sense than to celebrate Hip Hop culture and it's history during November, which is exactly what the Universal Zulu Nation has been doing for over 27 + years. November is also significant in the fact that it kicks off the "indoor jam season". The Hip Hop community jams, enjoyed outdoors in the parks, throughout the Summer, had to move indoors for about 7 months to community centers, gymnasiums, schools etc. for the Fall and Winter seasons. The Hip Hop World should recognize this month and pay tribute to those who laid the foundation and paved the way as well as to those who continue to preserve the rich tradition of the culture.

Of course, The Zulu Nation appreciates all efforts to preserve the whole of Hip Hop culture, including any days or weeks set aside to conscientiously appreciate Hip Hop, but would rather that all of these days and weeks combine to celebrate in unity every November as the tradition has been since the beginning of this culture. Founded by the godfather of Hip Hop himself, Afrika Bambaataa, The Universal Zulu Nation is the world's oldest, largest and most respected grass roots Hip Hop organization. It's members and supporters are Hip Hop's most famous and legendary artists. True school enthusiasts travel from all around the world to be in New York City, in November, for the annual Zulu Hip Hop Anniversary, the only true Hip Hop Anniversary since the beginning. The Anniversary hosts a positive Hip Hop community coming together from all walks of life to celebrate the true essence and excitement of what Hip Hop was meant to be. Many artists who have donated their performances to help raise funds at Zulu Hip Hop Anniversaries have gone on to become legends and many of these legends continue to return to NYC, in November, to give back to the core community who supported them since their careers began.

A Little Background Information: In the early years of the culture, the movement went untitled until Afrika Bambaataa, started calling it "Hip Hop", a term originated by Lovebug Starski. In the 70's, ten years prior to it's gaining global recognition, Hip Hop was a celebration of life gradually developing each of it's elements to form a cultural movement. Due to it's energy, dynamics, and momentum, Hip Hop culture has become, ultimately, a key to upliftment and reformation, as well as a billion-dollar industry.

From the 80's on, the Rap industry and media have helped to make the terms "Hip Hop" and "Rap" synonymous, leaving out the other elements included in the culture. In light of this enormous oversight, the Zulu Nation promotes the "5th element" of Hip Hop, which is KNOWLEDGE, and actively tries to educate the masses about the history and foundational elements of true Hip Hop culture. Bambaataa declared: "When we made Hip Hop, we made it hoping it would be about peace, love, unity and having fun so that people could get away from the negativity that was plaguing our streets (gang violence, drug abuse, self hate, violence among those of African and Latino descent). Even though this negativity still happens here and there, as the culture progresses, we play a big role in conflict resolution and enforcing positivity."

Hip Hop is the Vehicle to Deliver Innumerable Lessons! Afrika Bambaataa doesn't believe that Hip Hop heads should just have knowledge of Hip Hop. He promotes and proves that Hip Hop can be used as a vehicle for teaching awareness, knowledge, wisdom, understanding, freedom, justice, equality, peace, unity, love, respect, responsibility and recreation, overcoming challenges, economics, mathematics. science, life, truth, facts and faith.

The Elements: Hip Hop culture is defined as a movement which is expressed through various artistic mediums which we call "elements". The main elements are known as MC'ing (Rapping), DJ'ing, WRITING (Aerosol Art), SEVERAL DANCE FORMS (which include Breaking, Up-Rocking, Popping, and Locking) and the element which holds the rest together: KNOWLEDGE. There are also other elements such as Vocal Percussion/Beat Boxing, Fashion, etc. Within the past 20 years, Hip-Hop culture has greatly influenced the entertainment world with its creative contributions in music, dance, art, poetry, and fashion.

Due to their lack of knowledge about the whole of Hip Hop culture, many of our world's youth are mistaken in thinking that activities such as: smoking blunts, drinking 40's, wearing a designer label plastered across their chest, carrying a gun, or going to strip clubs, are "Hip Hop". Hip Hop is being portrayed negatively by many artists who work in the element of Rap (emceeing), and this negativity is usually instigated and promoted by the record industry and various other corporations who exploit the culture at the expense of the youth's state of mind and morality. The Universal Zulu Nation believes there is a difference in speaking out about negativity (activism) and promoting it as a desirable lifestyle. Gangsters, pimps, playas, hustlers, niggers, spics, and many other derogatory words once used against us are now self employed in our everyday vocabulary. Our ancestors who have fought and died trying to free us from these sicknesses and slave mentality are probably turning over in their graves! Bambaataa asks you to just think about this, "How in the hell did we turn from GODS to dogs?"

Afrika Bambaataa encourages you to do more research about our story, his/her-story, and what you think is your mystery is actually your history. Where are our Hip Hop thinkers, lawyers, holistic doctors, scientists, agriculturalists/herbalists, revolutionaries, politicians, judges, researchers, teachers, police, army, accountants, anthropologists, etc. Where is our own Hip Hop Museum? Many talk the talk but don't walk the walk. Many straight out sell-out to the liberation of our people as well as to all humans on the planet so called Earth! He also encourages you to do research on any Hip Hop organization that deals with consciousness and the upliftment of all people. To all those who purposely make up your own history and lie about the culture- DO YOUR RESEARCH!

You can contact the Universal Zulu Nation at their main website and to explore links to other Zulu chapters and websites.

Thank you in advance for forwarding this announcement to everyone you know!

Peace and Blessings Afrika Bambaataa & the entire Universal Zulu Nation.

As we say in Zulu - respect the many UNIVERSES and especially MOTHER EARTH

PS: If you are planning any events in honor of Hip Hop History Month in November please feel free to write to the webmaster at to keep us up-to-date!




J6602   ESPADA
Resolutions, Legislative
TITLE....Honoring the rich traditions of Hip Hop Culture

12/17/02 ADOPTED



LEGISLATIVE RESOLUTION honoring the rich traditions of Hip Hop Culture


WHEREAS,  It  is  the  sense  of this Legislative Body to pay tribute to

those individuals of historic and artistic significance  whose  creative

talents  have  contributed to the cultural enrichment of our communities

and our Nation; and

  WHEREAS, The month of November is now recognized by the State  of  New

York as Hip Hop Culture History month; and

  WHEREAS,  Afrika  Bambaattaa, was the first Hip Hop activist, who once

said, "Hip Hop Culture was created to be about peace,  love,  unity  and

having fun, in order to help people to get away from the negativity that

was plaguing our streets"; and

  WHEREAS,  Even  though  this  negativity  still exists, as the culture

progresses, Hip Hop Culture plays a big role in the conflict and  resol-

ution by encouraging positivity; and

  WHEREAS, Hip Hop is made up of Rap, DJ'ing, Break dancing, Up-Rocking,

Popping, Locking, Vocal Percussion, and Beat Boxing; and

  WHEREAS,  The  godfather  of Hip Hop culture is Afrika Bambaattaa; and

the world's oldest, largest and  most  respected  grass  roots  Hip  Hop

organization is the Universal Zulu Nation; and

  WHEREAS, Hip Hop culture is a positive tool for social change; and

  WHEREAS,  The inception of Hip Hop culture in the Bronx was during the

early 1970's; it has been a vehicle for breaking down racial barriers on

a world wide level; and

  WHEREAS, Hip Hop is a means for overcoming challenges, and a means for

teaching awareness and knowledge, inspiration and wisdom; and

  WHEREAS, During the 70's, Hip Hop was a celebration of life, gradually

developing to form a cultural movement as a result of its dynamic energy

and momentum; and

  WHEREAS, Hip Hop culture has become, ultimately, a key to  uplift  the

spirit of many; and

  WHEREAS,  Hip  Hop  culture  has  greatly influenced the entertainment

world with its creative contributions in music, dance, art, poetry,  and

fashion; and

  WHEREAS,  Hip  Hop  is  the vehicle to deliver innumerable lessons and

continues to provide for unity, love, respect, and responsibility; and

  WHEREAS, D.J. Afrika Bambaattaa and the Universal  Zulu  Nation,  Cool

Herc,  Grandmaster Flash, the Cold Crush Brothers, Cool Clyde and Light-

nen Lance, Nolie Dee, Maria Davis and Mytika  Davis  are  true  inspira-

tions; and

  WHEREAS, It is the sense of this Legislative Body, in keeping with its

time-honored traditions, to recognize and pay tribute to those organiza-

tions  which  foster  ethnic  pride  and enhance the profile of cultural

diversity that strengthens the fabric of the  communities  of  New  York

State; and

  WHEREAS,  It  is  the  sense  of  this Legislative Body that those who

enhance the well-being and vitality of their community and have shown  a

long  and  sustained  commitment to excellence certainly have earned our

recognition and applause; now, therefore, be it

  RESOLVED, That this Legislative Body pause  in  its  deliberations  to

honor the rich traditions of Hip Hop Culture; and be it further

  RESOLVED, That copies of this Resolution, suitably engrossed, be tran-

smitted  to Afrika Bambaataa and all of the participants of the Hip Hop

Culture Celebration.



Gangs, Politics & House Music: The History of Hip Hop in Chicago
By Davey D
Nowadays it’s hard to turn on the radio and not hear music from one of Chicago’s many music superstars. Common, Twista, Da Brat, Shawnna, R Kelly, Doe or Die, Crucial Conflict, Lupe Fiasco, and of course Kanye West seem to have firmly positioned themselves on the nation’s airwaves.
If you dig a little deeper and check out Hip Hop’s underground, you’ll discover that very few people are willing to roll up and do battle with esteemed Chi-town lyricists like M’Rald, Rhymefest and of course Juice. Others like DJ Third Rail and the late DJ Pinkhouse to name a few have not only made names for themselves as deejays not to be toyed with but also provided important platform for local artists.
Yes, the Chi seems to have established itself in the world of Hip Hop, but it wasn’t always like that. In fact much of the Chi-Town’s success is a direct result of organized effort by it’s pioneering Hip Hop community that grew frustrated from being locked out by the industry that saw Chicago, more as a consumer market as a opposed to a place where stars are born.
Many within the music industry were only willing to embrace the nation’s third largest city as the Mecca for House Music and somehow managed to disconnect that music form from Hip Hop when in many ways the two are intertwined, especially along the lines of deejay culture.
The battle to establish ‘Tha Chi’ within Hip Hop was about as brutal as its political landscape. Unsung heroes like Dr Groove, Lord Cashus D, DA Smart, Black Allies, Sugar Ray Dinky, George Daniels, World wide Posse, God Squad, The Chi Rock Nation, Ill State Assassins, and the late DJ Pink House all played crucial roles in organizing, pushing the envelop and seeing to it that the Windy City get its respect. They used to roll up on nightclubs, radio stations and even label executives demanding to be recognized. Many will forget that back in the late 80s there was a movement called the New World Order which brought many of Chicago’s Hip Hop community together as they fought for change and respect.
Sadly despite those heroic efforts of the past, today, many local artists who are not signed to a major record label or coming out of Kanye or Common’s camp find that many outlets like radio and even nightclubs are closed to them. This is now spurning up a new generation of Chi-Town Hip Hoppers to start organizing to bring about change.
During the recently held National Hip Hop Political Convention we sat down with one of Chicago’s premier pioneering emcees, Jitu the Juggernaut of the group Ten Tray. For those who are unfamiliar ten Tray was the first group to be signed to major label. Back in 91, Jitu the lead rapper was and to this day remains an activist who saw the power of Hip Hop and decided to use his talents to spark political thought and hopefully change.
In our interview he gave a serious rundown of the city’s history. He also cleared up a lot of perceptions. For example, he talked about Hip Hop first emerging in the Chi around the late 70s. He talked about how Afrika Bambaataa’s Universal Zulu Nation set up a chapter under pioneer Lord Cashus D in ‘78.
Jitu broke down the important connection between Hip Hop and House. He reminds us that House is a Black music genre that at least in the Chi was enjoyed by cats that lived in the hood. He talked about the Hip House movement that came about in the late 80s with key players like Fast Eddie, Tyree, JMD and the late Kool Rock Steady being not only household names in the Chicago, but in many ways ambassadors for the city around the world. Jitu goes into depth about the important role Kool Rock Jay played.
He also talked about how the House music deejays forced everyone to step up their deejay skillz and that it was not unusual to have b-boys and b-girls at House music parties and events. He also drew parallels to how the lack of public school after school programs and music classes forced many to turn to deejaying as a way to express themselves musically. A good part of House music was born out of that void.
Jitu also talked about The Chi’s early graf scene with pioneers like Warp One.
What really stood out in our conversation was Jitu talking about the early club and open mic scene. He talked about how the now defunct El Rukin street gang (formerly the Blackstone Rangers) had a building on the Southside complete with an auditorium where they would hold weekly emcee battles.
Jitu details the influence Chicago’s highly organized, legendary street gangs have had the scene. He also talks about how other groups like the Nation of Islam and the legacy of the Black Panthers which had its largest and most organized chapter in the Chi have also had influence on folks as they were coming up and into Hip Hop.
Lastly Jitu goes into detail about the politics and the layout of the city. He talks about the differing cultures that exist on the historic Southside, the Westside and the Northside of the city. He also runs down a report card of sorts about some of Chicago’s famous people and organizations and the role they played or ‘have not’ played in terms of elevating Hip Hop.
Jitu finds himself back on the scene after coming out of retirement and ready to drop a new album called ‘Necessary Ingredients’ which is being backed by the Universal Zulu Nation.
Below is a brief timeline of Jitu and his career courtesy of
Jitu is an African name, given to him in 1995 meaning “A giant among men.” Jitu is a youth program coordinator and community organizer on the south side of Chicago. He swarmed the game in 2002, entering battles and open mics. Leaving crowds in a state of disbelief, Jitu has humbled emcees all over the country, blending a once in a lifetime voice with an expansive vocabulary and ferocious delivery. On the underground, many call him the best they have ever heard! A short look at his accomplishments: • 1986-Winner of “Battle of Chicago Rappers” at El Rukn Fort
• 1989-2nd Place-“Battle of Chicago Rappers”
• 1989-Formed “New World Order” along with Cashus D of the Universal Zulu Nation, to organize rappers, dancers, singers and dj’s in Chicago. Was the largest such organization in the country with over 200 members.
• 1989-Organized, with Dr. Groove (Source Magazine) and DA Smart, a massive hip-hop community protest of the opening of “Sarafina” at the Regal Theatre for refusing to recognize DA after he won a national talent competition with his rap, “Black People ain’t Prejudiced, They Just Mad.” They recognized DA as the winner of the contest.
• 1991-With group Ten Tray, signed to Smash Polygram records to become the first rap act in Chicago on a major label.
• 1992-Appeared on Rap City, The Box and Yo! MTV Raps.
• 1992-Album, “Realm of Darkness” recognized as album of the month in Rapmasters magazine.
• 1992-Song, “Ain’t Nothin’ Like a Sister” was number one song in Las Vegas region and other west coast markets for 4-9 weeks.
• 2003-Winner-“Battle of the Iron Mic”
• 2003-4 Time Champion-Emcee Battle @ Wild Hare
• 2003-Winner-1st Annual Kool Mix Emcee Battle
• 2003-3 Time Champion-Microphone War @ Subterranean
• 2004-Represented Chicago in national BRAINSTORM rap battle in Seattle (semi-finalist)
• 2004-2nd Place-Rhyme Spitters emcee battle and documentary (see enclosed DVD…we got shafted!)
• Joined and helped develop veteran hip-hop alliance, “FIGHT CLUB”
• 2005-Begin work on album, “NECESSARY INGREDIENTS.”
On this album, entitled NECESSARY INGREDIENTS, Jitu brings pure, unbridled passion and energy with ridiculous beats provided by the likes of Harvy Allbangers, Tony Baines, Joe Blaque, Ty Hill and Issues. Jitu blends real street cuts and bruises, consciousness, passion and skillz to deliver the gz-noods on this project. This album is a holy book for emcees, as Jitu blends subject matter, lyrics, delivery, flow, energy, breath control to give you what we believe, is ONE OF THE BEST ALBUMS IN THE HISTORY OF HIP-HOP.
Contact Information: Jitu tha Jugganott 4356 S. Lake Park, Suite 1N (yeah, right!) Chicago, IL 60653 (773) 317-6343 (Respect the Art of Emceeing!)
For More Info:





            The Crash Crew was formed in 1977 as a 15-man crew that consisted of D.Js and M.Cs, a promotional crew, and security. They performed at community centers, out in the parks and in local clubs in New York City. By  1979 The Crash Crew had a reputation for giving parties with the best production, which featured the 10,000-watt Mace Monster sound system. In  1980 The Crash Crew released “High Powered Rap” which was on there own label Mike & Dave Records. The group recorded. Produced, promoted, and sold the record themselves. They sold it to all the mom and pop stores as well as to the general public at all their shows. The group’s popularity grew and grew. Then in 1981 after being approached by many new record companies The Crash Crew signed with Sugarhill Records. The group released the single We Wanna Rock followed up with Breaking Bells. The group started to tour nationally with other groups like Grand Master Flash and The Furious Five, Sequence, The Funky Four Plus 1 More, and The Sugarhill Gang. Now the group had national popularity. Then in 1982 they released We Are Known As M.Cs and On The Radio which was certified gold. This record was followed up with Here We Are.

         Among many of The Crash Crew accomplishments are that they play in the very first Entertainers Tournament game in MT Morris Park in Manhattan against the Disco 4. The Crash brought their system to the park played music while the game was going on and people came out to see the two groups do battle on the court. The game was so successful that all the other groups in N.Y wanted to get involved and every Sunday afternoon there would be a game between all the most popular Rap groups of the time.


         Also D.J Darryl C. (R.I.P) produced a song for Mike & Dave on a new up and coming group named The Boogie Boys the song was called Rappin’ Ain’t A Thing. The Boogie Boys then grew to international fame.


       E.K Mike C and D.J Darryl C (R.I.P) were on one of the first tours to go overseas with members of The Rocksteady Crew/Magnificent Force Crew.


           The Crash Crew/ Poison Clan has always been trailblazers and continues to work together on new material as well as do shows now. E,K Mike C has a studio and is producing tracks for The Crash Crew as well as The Boogie Boys. Yoda is also the DJ for Kid Delight of The Boogie Boys.  He and Reggie Reg are working with a couple of up and coming artist. LaShuBee is writing rhymes and still recording with the group. Gee Man makes some cameos and still sometimes performs with the group. Yoda is road managing Rob Base and DJ EZ Rock and still handles things for The Crash.


Yet Another Hip Hop Legend Lost-RIP Skeeter Rabbit
by Davey D
It's hard to say what exactly is going on as of late, but Hip Hop has been hit with some devastating loses as of late. From J-Dilla to Proof to Professor X, the losses have come quick, without warning and have left very little time for folks to grieve before being impacted with another unexpected demise.
Here on the West Coast, we have been hit extremely hard. The lose of DJ Dusk to a drunk driver still has LA and much of the West Coast's Hip Hop scene reeling. This past weekend, Hip Hop pioneers Afrika Bambaataa and Kool Herc made a rare appearance on the same bill to raise money for Dusk's family. They performed in LA on Friday and then in the Bay Area on Saturday. Also on the bill was Jazzy Jay who wrecked shop. On Friday's show DJ Z-Trip and Cut Chemist came through and also represented. The night before the LA appearance Herc, Bam and Jazzy Jay spun at Tabel 50 in New York, where Dusk had a strong following.
In an eerie sense of Deja Vu, while these Hip Hop pioneers and icons were paying tribute to DJ Dusk and others were still trying to make sense of the passing of DJ Michael Mixxing Moore who passed on the same day as Dusk, unbeknowst to many of us in attendence, another Hip Hop legend-Skeeter Rabbit of the pioneering dance group the Electric Boogaloos passed away earlier that morning...
The word is just now getting out beyond the dance community and needless to say people are besides themselves... Everyone is asking what is going on?  Why is so much death hitting us... The details surrounding his death    are still unclear and sketchy. We'll await an official announcement from the Electric Boogaloos and Skeeter's family
In the meantime here's some biographical information about a man who greatly impacted Hip Hop...
"Skeet started dancing as a young kid growing up in the streets of Los Angeles. Skeet started out locking and soon after started popping with his cousins Boogaloo Sam and Poppin Pete around 1978. In 1979 Skeet became an official member of the EB's and has gone on to become a pioneer and innovator of the dance styles popping and boogaloo.
Skeet is currently helping spread funk styles knowledge through shows, appearances and classes around the world.
Skeet has appeared in videos by such artists as Thomas Dolby, The Talking Heads, and Michael Jackson. His movie credits include: Michael Jackson's "Ghost," "DC Cab," "Body Rock" and "Fast Forward." He was also a featured dancer on David Bowie's “Glass Spider” tour. "
You can click here to see a couple of clips of Skeeter Rabbit dancing..
You can also check the message boards of fellow EB member Mr Wiggle's  for more info
or you can check the Electric Boogaloo's website
Here's a eulogy that was written for Skeeter Rabbit.
A Eulogy to Skeeter Rabbit: The Man Who Saw Too Much
By Brit Wolfson




Major props to Jeff Carroll out of Miami for penning this important article. It couldn't have come at a better time when you consider how the rascist white executives like Jeff Smulyan, Rick Cummins, John Dimmick and Barry Mayo over at Emmis's Hot 97 allowed their on air jocks to make disaparaging, racially offensive remarks about a group of people who are acritical in the foundation for Hip Hop music and culture. In short there would be Hot 97 if it wasn't for these good folks profiled in the article... I say read this and then email a copy to them at and demand an apology.....

The 10 Most Influential Caribbeans in Hip Hop Culture
By Jeff Carroll

Note: Due to the highly debatable nature of this editorial, Urban America Newspaper is welcoming a round table community discussion on this topic. If you have any comments or suggestions in regards to the article, feel free to make them on our message board at

Let’s get it started. This article was written for one reason and one reason only, to clear up the confusion around the origin of values within Hip Hop culture. This article isn’t written to promote the careers of any of the people mentioned. I’m not playing favorite with any artist and I don’t work for a record company. This list came strictly from my own independent research. The main motivation for this article is to show how we all have contributed to Hip Hop culture’s positive and negative characteristics. When I say we all I mean us African people.

As an African American living in the huge Caribbean diversity of Miami I am a cultural minority. Living in a place where my Caribbean brothers and sisters out number the African Americans I hear comments about Hip Hop and African Americans that are different than the comments I heard from Caribbeans living in New York.

I lived in the New York area for 32 years and never heard some of the comments I heard on a regular down here in the MIA. Down here Caribbeans feel they are much different than African Americans. Many of them feel that we blame the “white man” too much which makes us lazy. They feel African American moral values are low and are manifested through Hip Hop.

Now, I know older African Americans have problems with the morals in Hip Hop culture too. There is a difference between the way African Americans 50 years old and older feel and than the way many Caribbeans in Miami feel about Hip Hop. African Americans who are upset with Hip Hop expect more responsibility from the future generation. They’re partial acceptance allows them to approach solutions from within their families and communities.

Many Caribbeans in Miami on the other hand believe that Hip Hop is violent, anti-education, overly sexual and has a negative male/female relationship value system. They see these things as African American culture instead of something wrong that can be fixed. Their opinion of African American culture is so low they try to adopt the values of European/white Americans. Their attraction to European culture and desire to separate form African American culture creates other problems for them.

In this article I’m just dealing with how Caribbean culture has influenced Hip Hop culture. Hip Hop is one of the greatest creations we descendents of African captives have produced. Hip Hop has produced tremendous wealth for us. It has changed American society and it is influencing world culture. Hip Hop’s greatest legacy is it’s ability to provide a path to economic wealth for America’s poor. The future impact of Hip Hop on the world is uncharted and something we all should embrace.

Okay, here we go. When I say Caribbeans I’m talking about the one’s enslaved by the French and speak Creole/French, the Spanish enslaved that now claim that language and of course the Dutch and English enslaved Caribbeans who have put their own twist on English creating patwa. These people along with African Americans must acknowledge their role in creating and shaping Hip Hop.

Hip Hop is ours and like Jazz and Rock it can be taken from us and used to build wealth in other communities. Consequently if ignored Hip Hop can be used to pull us down as well. From the very beginning Caribbeans have contributed to Hip Hop. Along with African Americans various individuals have made many positive and negative contributions. These contributions are so significant that they have shaped and produced today’s Hip Hop culture. Here is a list of 10 Caribbean people who have made significant contributions to Hip Hop culture.

Kool DJ Herc, Clive Campbell, Kingston, Jamaica, born 1955

He is an undisputed founding member of Hip Hop. He held outdoor street parties in the Bronx, NYC in the late 70’s. He came to NYC at 10 years old and brought his Jamaican rhymes and attitude with him. Kool DJ Herc spun the musical breaks in all types of songs that kept his parties hype which demonstrated what Hip Hop was. He is credited with naming and promoting Hip Hop and is widely regarded as “The Father of Hip Hop.”

Grand Master Flash, Joseph Saddle, Barbados, Born 1958

As a DJ his skill at speed mixing popularized Hip Hop DJing and made him one of the World’s most recognized DJ’s. He has remained a DJing advocate ever since he stood his ground against the push to switch the group and DJ lead structure to an MC lead structure when his group

Grand Master Flash and The Furious Five split with MC Melly Mel. As a solo artist he produced 2 more albums with another group. He is credited with popularizing Hip Hop DJing and DJ producers.

Notorious B.I.G., Christopher Wallace, Jamaica, born 1972-1997

Considered the best lyricist ever in Hip Hop by many Hip Hoppers. Along with Hip Hop mogul Sean Puffy Combs he heightened the materialism as well the gangster image. He is credited with popularizing gangster rap. He legacy is still being made through the activities of his Patwa speaking mother.

Wyclef Jean, Croix-de-Bouquets, Haiti Born 1972

He probably reps for his Caribbean Island the most out of any other Hip Hopper. Born in Haiti, he moved to New Jersey at age 10. As a member of the group the Fugees he proudly boasts about his Haitian culture. He easily announced his nationality at a time when it was unpopular to say you were from Haiti because of nasty rumors that the man made AIDS disease came from there. Wyclef is credited for popularizing cultural awareness and pride.

Luther R. Campbell, Bahamian and Jamaican, Born 1960

Still the most famous Hip Hop figure to come out of Miami, Florida. As a member of the group T2 Live Crew, Luke pushed the limits of freedom of speech and was sued for selling sexually explicit lyrics to children. After winning the law suit he opened the door for more sexually charged rap lyrics. Since then he has produced many XXX videos. Luke is credited with advancing pornography in Hip Hop.

Doug E Fresh, Doug E Davis, Barbados, Born 1967

Hailed as the Greatest Entertainer in Hip Hop. Through the use of his mouth and charismatic personality Doug is still the most celebrated Beat Boxer in the world. A strict vegetarian he has steered his 20+ year career clear of gangster and sexually promotional songs. Doug was a member of the Stop the Violence movement and even toured Colleges raising social consciousness with The Get Busy Tour. Doug is credited with being a long lasting positive figure in Hip Hop.

Foxy Brown, Inga Marchaud, Trinidad/Asian, Born 1979

Foxy Brown is one of the most recognized Hip Hop females. In the 90’s her sexy outfits and gangster lyrics made her a top rap artist. Through the use of the sexually provocative costumes worn in Trinidad during the celebration of Carnival she helped popularize the sexiness of Hip Hop women. Foxy’s choice to use these carnival costumes designed to arouse men and get them to release their sexual sins as performance outfits credits her with increasing the importance of sexuality in Hip Hop clothes.

Fat Joe, Joseph Cartagena, Puerto Rico, 1970

He is currently the #1 Latino rapper in the world. He has attracted a bilingual audience with his heavy hitting English and Spanglish lyrics. With lyrics full of Puerto Rican pride, his chart topping songs have given not only Latinos from Puerto Rico worldwide recognition but, all Spanish speaking Caribbeans. Fat Joe is a Hip Hop icon. He is credited for making Latin culture something that everyone could enjoy.

Prince Markie Dee, Mark Morales, Puerto Rico, Born 1960

As the respected MC of the group The Fat Boys Prince Markie Dee took his fun image from records to film. His appearances in just 2 movies and music videos displayed a non-threatening example of Hip Hopper. He is currently a radio personality at Miami’s own 103.5 The Beat. He is credited with advancing Hip Hop’s youth appeal.

Busta Rhymes, Trever Smith Jr., Jamaica born 1972

One of the Hottest rappers in Hip Hop history with a unique style that has given him number one hits for over 15 years. He has been able to get respect from all Hip Hoppers by having an image that is not gangster or perverted. The content of Busta’s songs are on a variety of subjects. He is credited with being a long lasting Hip Hop celebrity that is entertaining enough to rock a crowd just like the hardest hardcore thugged out, sex promoting rappers.

Honorable mention to other Caribbean rappers:

Kid Creole
Kangol Kid
Special Ed
Star (of The Star And Bucwild Show)
Jazzy Joyce
Big Pun
Mad Lion
Trugoy (of De La Soul)
Crazy Legs
Mr. Wiggles
Karl Kani
Mello Man Ace
Shakim Compere
Herbie “Love Bug” Azor

These are the 10 Hip Hoppers of Caribbean descent that I feel have helped shape Hip Hop culture the most. These are Hip Hoppers who grew up in homes where they didn’t listen to Gospel, Jazz and Motown only like most African Americans. They ate plantains, curry goat, rice & peas and their parents searched for callous in produce sections of grocery stores. They were groomed in environments where Salsa, Meringue, Compas, Calypso, Reggae and varieties of Caribbean rhythms were dominant.

Their influence on Hip Hop culture directly relates to their bi-culture orientation. Understanding the Caribbean cultural background of these Hip Hop figure will help you better understand where someone like a Foxy Brown got the idea for her stage outfits from. Now, that doesn’t mean you have to like her outfits, but at least you have something better to base your opinion on.

I didn’t write this article just to tell people about negative contributions Caribbean Hip Hoppers have made that African Americans get blamed for. Knowing your History is important because it helps the world. In the case with Hip Hop being off track the way it is only those who know the history of Hip Hop can truly recognize it. Hip Hop started by positive personalities like Kool DJ Herc (from Jamaica), Grand Master Flash (from the Bahamas) and Afrika Bambaattaa (an African American) who used Hip Hop to give inner-city youth an option to gang activity and crime. Zulu Nation, the first Hip Hop organization, went so far as starting up chapters throughout New York where lessons on Black History and human behavior were circulated.

Today, Hip Hop’s image is clouded by the commercialization by companies who’s only goals are to sell merchandise. These companies find their business through appealing to sex and violence qualities which are the very values that Hip Hop was started in opposition to. Afrika Bambaattaa popularized the values of Peace, Unity, Love and Having Fun, which are considered the base values of Hip Hop. These values are basically unknown to today’s commercial rap music fans. I will conclude with these thoughts. Hip Hop is a the leading American sub-culture.

It is a great monument to the achievement of oppressed people in this country. It would be a tragedy if Hip Hop were to be considered a negative element to society. It was created to give hope and happiness to the children of lower economical areas and teach them that fighting each other is not productive and they must respect themselves and women. I get frustrated when I hear people, especially my Caribbean brothers and sisters, speak negatively about American culture. Hip Hop culture is something we created together in America and together we shaped it to be as overly sexual and violent as it is today. For Hip Hop to improve we must also work together and get it back on the track it was designed for.

Jeff Carroll




Where did the name Hip Hop come from, and who is
responsible for saying The name Hip Hop came from
Afrika Bambaata?  When Bam throws a party, he feels
like a theme name for his party would be better and
more exciting.  If you were given two flyers and one
said "Party" at 123 four st., or Flava Jam 2002 at 123
four St.   One of the names for his early parties was
THE HIP HOP BEENY BOP.  Some could equate this as a
teen Jam because of the phrase Beeny Bop.  Bop is
also short for Boppers.
     So when Bambaata had his parties, and Starski
would Mc the jam, He would say thing s like WELCOME TO
TILL YOU DON'T STOP.  So true respect is giving to Mc
Starski with being credited for popularizing the
Phrase Hip Hop, but it's also respect and credit due
to Afrika Bambatta for starting the word HIP HOP.
Dynamite J
please respond back with your opinions, or re-buttals
to what I said. 

The History Of Hip Hop    


an official Tools Of War press release
from publicist: Christie Z-Pabon at
(founders: Jorge "Fabel" Pabon and Christie Z-Pabon)

BATTLES and PERFORMANCES from 1979-1983!!


Bronx NY: All Mighty Kay Gee of the Cold Crush Brothers is launching his website,, a work in progress, offering direct digital recordings and delivery of classic Hip Hop battles and performances from the best time period of Hip Hop culture…The Beginning!  For the first time online, you can purchase and download the classic and historic performances which are the foundational blue prints for today's Hip Hop MCs. In the past, only old generation cassette tape copies existed of these ground breaking shows. Straight from the archives of Cold Crush photographer, Joey Kane, features close to 100 never-seen-before flicks from 1979 - 1985 of the Cold Crush Brothers, Kool Moe Dee, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool DJ Red Alert, Kurtis Blow, Mr. Magic, and behind the scenes shots during the filming of Wild Style. A discussion board is present on the site to host your discussions and views regarding New School vs. Old School, the Differences in Hip Hop Culture in the US and other Countries, Hip Hop Role Models, The Ladies of Hip Hop, Writing, Hip Hop Dance Forms and more.

that you might never ever have gotten to hear, much less own!
(short audio clips available to give you each selections flavor)


1979: Cold Crush Brothers at the Hoe Avenue Boys Club
1980: Cold Crush Brothers in the Bronx
1980: Christmas Rappers Convention: Busy Bee vs. Kool Moe Dee + Johnny Wah, Force MC's, Cold Crush
Early 80's: Cold Crush Brothers at Harlem World Anniversary

Early 80's: Cold Crush Brothers vs. Fantastic 5ive at Harlem World
Early 80's: Cold Crush Brothers and Fantastic 5ive at Savoy Manor
1981: Cold Crush Brothers w/ Doug E. Fresh

1982: Cold Crush Brothers at Ecstasy Garage
1982: Cold Crush Brothers at MC Convention
1983: Master Don at Harlem World
1993: Cold Crush Brothers at S.O.B.s
2000: Cold Crush Brothers at the Experience Music Project (Seattle)

also available:
at the Experience Music Project (2000)





Greetings Kings/Queens/Ahki's/Malikas/Brothers/Sisters & the Whole World
Wide HipHop Nation...
I&I Sincerely Hope & Pray that Our Almighty Creator (The Force & Source Of
Life..!!) has kept Each & Everyone one of you Safe, free from harm &

I&I just generated this e-mail in reply to the Mighty Universal Zulu
Nation's Cry for conscious brethren to voice their concerns/hopes & visions
MAX Kulture of ours. I&I got much love for the HipHop Kulture because this
Kulture changed I&I's mindset & life for the better and I&I is forever
grateful for our forefathers that brought this Kulture into existence. MUCH
contributed & is still contributing to keep this Kulture Vibrant & Fresh,
all these collective efforts are really appreciated by the masses that
really & truly supports TRUE-SKOOL HipHop Kulture and all the elements that
this Kulture consists of.

Now, a little background history of I&I's journey within the HipHop Kulture
& why it means such alot to I-Man. I&I first came into contact with this
Kulture in 1985 (even though I'm still a youngster - in body, mind & soul) &
here in my country I'm already considered to be OLD-SKOOL eventhough I&I can
still take out some of these youths in a 1 on 1 BBoy battle. Firstly, the
HipHop Kulture was introduced to my country, BEAUTIFUL SOUTH AFRIKA, in 1982
through the Best HipHop Movie EVER, The Movie WILDSTYLE, and it only grew
from strength to strength as the years progressed. When the Kulture started
taking off on the Cape Flats, everybody just wanted to be dancers, I mean,
everywhere you went you just met new BBoy/BGirl groups changing from
freestyle dancing to Locking & Popping & later on Busting the more difficult
moves like windmills etc.. In the little community where I-Man lived, the
StreetFreakCrew (They actually based themselves on the RSCrew) were the crew
to beat and everybody that danced in our neighbourhood just wanted to belong
to SFCrew. During that period, I-Man was about 10/11 years old and one of
the best Micheal Jackson impersonators in my 'hood, but this new dance that
we saw evolving in our 'hoods really blew us way & we really wanted to learn
how to dance like these youngsters that were spinning on their backs &
heads. Me & my boys practised & practised every day until we were ready to
Battle some of the members of the SFCrew that lived a couple of streets away
from us. On the day of the battle, the whole SFCrew rocked up to support
their crew members. The Boombox was set up, Soul sonic Force was blasting at
full volume and the oilycloth was taped down in the play park. Adrenalin was
pumping, Rappers were rapping, Lockers were locking, Poppers were popping &
the Breakers was breaking. The atmosphere was ELECTRIC, the day was
beautiful & sunny & the crowd went ballistic as we stepped up the pace of
the battle. Eventhough BBoy Bully, BBoy Mole, BBoy Ready D, BBoy Ahmed &
BBoy Sitaa wiped us out in the Skill department, we really enjoyed ourselves
that day and we wanted more & more of this Kulture. We eventually became
good enough & was inducted as members of the StreetFreakCrew and this is
actually where we started to learn more about the HipHop Kulture.

This was the first time that i watched movies about the HipHop Kulture &
where i first saw the RockSteadyCrew perform and ever since then I became a
hardcore HipHop fan, Loving the BBoy element to the max.
Later, round about 86', a youngster by the name of Kevin Jamo (he had "Pen
pals" from the states that was also into the HipHop Kulture) introduced us
to the Universal Zulu Nation and we all came together and started our very
own Universal Zulu Nation chapter in Cape Town. Now, we never really
officially joined the Original Universal Zulu Nation from the Bronx but we
conducted meetings and were structured like the true UZN. Some of our
friends' parents also became involved with our UZN chapter and started to
run the chapter for us which helped to improve our organisation. They
started getting us shows and setting up fundraising efforts so that we could
have t-shirts printed and tracksuits made to our liking. We even started to
receive more reading material from Jamo's penpals from the States which sent
us articles on what was happening on the HipHop scene in the states. Those
years, HipHop was ALL about having fun and enjoying yourself with your
friends, Battling your rivals and remaining conscientious about your
political situations and your heritage. We learned about The Great Bam, DJ
Kool Herc,Grandmaster Flash, The Sugar Hill gang (someone from the States
actually once wrote us a letter which states that the Sugar Hill's first
album "Rappers Delight" actually paved the way for other rap artists - but
later through contact with Zulu Natives from the states we learned about the
Cold Crush & the Crash crew - and about other pioneering emcee groups)
Grandwizzard Theodore & the Fantastic Romantic Five, Kurtis Blow, Big Daddy
Kane etc.. the List can just go on & on. I can still remember how I liked to
be admired by my peers because of all the tags that i owned. Everybody that
was into HipHop would not be seen without their tags and the more tags you
wore, the Hipper you were. Remembering all this stuff actually puts one on a
nostalgic journey back into the days of our youth but nevertheless, those
are "never-to-be-repeated" times and we are here to try and make a
difference in the Kulture for the now & here.

I-Man actually feels very proud, looking back & looking at how far the
Kulture has come & to the extent that it has grown today, to have been part
of the growing phase (I know the Kulture is still in it's growth stages) of
this kulture. Lots of things has changed within the kulture, but change is
actually the only surety in life so change, be it good or bad, is actually
part of our lives. Looking at South Afrika, the HipHop Kulture has really
grown vastly since the time that I-Man was still stage performing, but yet
it seems as if the unity we felt back in the days are not present today
amongst the youth that partake in this Kulture today. In my opinion, the
rolemodels of the Kulture today, are a far cry from the rolemodels of
yesteryear because today it's all about Blinging and getting paid but back
then, it was all about Peace, Love & Unity and about being yourself & you
LOVING yourself enough to be YOU..!!! Nowadays, the youth just want to be
another Nelly, supporting the gold chains & ice earring studs or another
jigga man, macking the honeys or pimping them hoes. I can remember how we
went crazy about another P.E. LP dropping or when we heard Run DMC ripping
over the airwaves, it reinforced us positively because the state that our
country was in during that time was really depressing and the HipHop Kulture
was our escape from our daily realities. It was really uplifting expressing
your political views through rhyming and that was exactly what we were
doing, mobilising our peers through rap music. Even if our parents thought
that we crazy at the time, spinning on our heads, making sounds with your
mouth while your partners was spitting some venomous rhymes, they were too
glad that we weren't caught up in the web of gangsterism and violence
because our local communities was ravaged by gangsterism during those years.
Amazingly, even the gangster elements respected you if they knew that you
were into the HipHop Kulture but in today's times if people hear that you
listen to rap music, they class you as a gangster element because of all the
gangster rap that they hear out in the commercial field. Whenever you see a
Rap music video on the T.V. it's all about money and women, to the point
that people actually believes that HipHop is about money & women. Why don't
a person ever see some BBoyz busting a couple of moves on these music
videos, or a graff artist doing a mural..?? You hear the rhymers shout
"HipHop Hooray..!!" but you don't see any other HipHop element being
portrayed in the music video, instead you see Lovely, Beautiful young
ladies, almost completely naked shaking their thang... No disrespect meant
to the ladies but i'd rather prefer to see the BBoys or BGirls doing their
thang because BBoying is (to me) the most impressive element in the HipHop
Kulture. Just the other day, while watching T.V with my wife, i saw a music
video of Nelly Furtado & i really impressed because she actually features a
couple of BGirl crews in her music video and i commented to my wife that
this was what i would prefer to see in these music videos.

Nevertheless, the Kulture has actually brought many positive changes in our
local communities. I tell my youngsters (the groups that I-Man works with)
everyday, how lucky they are to be experiencing the HipHop Kulture today.
From a dancing point of view, the young have a lot of events to participate
in like the BOTY competition, Our Local ABC (African Battle Cry) event, BBoy
Of the Year event etc. they actually get recognition & money to dance
whereas we use to dance for the love of dancing. We also have a HipHop week
where all the elements of the Kulture gets exposed to the youth and they get
the opportunity to participate in workshops in all of the Elements. This
week is known is the AfriKan HipHop Indaba week and it has become an annual
institution to which everybody always looks forward to attending.
Unfortunately, I-Man is too old to participate in these competitions but
I-Man is still young enough to help any crew that comes to I-Man for
support. This is actually I-Man's work within the Kulture, I-Man assists the
young BBoy crews in establishing themselves as groups, puts them in contact
with the necessary people to help them get shows, helps them out with
BBoying material like movies & music and then I-Man moves on to the next
group in line. The problem in our country is that the HipHop Kulture don't
get the same exposure like the Kwaito Kulture (another local artistic
Kulture - not as exciting or positive like the HipHop Kulture) and with the
negative image that is being portrayed by the commercial HipHop artists
(negative gangsta rap) it makes it really difficult to get sponsorships for
all our endeavours to help expand the Kulture. There's still alot of work to
be done on the Kulture in my country, but collectively we've achieved much
more than we ever thought we could and I-Man really feels positive about the
future of the HipHop Kulture within South Afrika. Currently, of all the
regions that we have in our country, Cape Town is still the HipHop Capitol
of South Afrika and we see it as our duty to spread the HipHop Kulture virus
to each every region in South Afrika & Afrika for that matter. It's still a
long way to go, but seeing all the youngsters today that is interested in
this Kulture makes one feel confident that this Kulture WILL grow to spread
the whole of Afrika because it already caused a global infection.

Nevertheless my Brethren, I-Man has alerady said alot and I-Man knows that
there's still much to be said but unfortunately I-Man's time has run out for
today. You can just hit I-Man up any time if there's anything else that you
might like to know or require from I-Man but until such time, Keep the
HipHop spirit Alive..!!!

Prosper in the 5th element of the Kulture, Knowledge, Kulture &
Until next time, Stay up, Stay strong, Keep the Faith & Increase the Love..

BBoy Ricochet Skillz One a.k.a
Ricky Napthali Tafari..
HipHop Kulture FOREVER...  


I´m a Hungarian born brother that grew up in Munich / Germany. I´m into Hip
Hop for about 7 years now. In the beginning around 96 for me Hip Hop meant
chillin at a Homie´s crib smoking lot of hash and listenin to rap music .
Although I wrote some Graffity I didn´t really take it serious it wasn´t
really my thang.Actually I did´t take anything serious. It was always the
same shit : Gettin high everyday maybe goin to a party on the weekend and
getting drunk. I rarely went to Hip Hop jams although I was amazed by the
B-boys and loved to see  the MC s rock the mic - I simply was too lazy no
doubt. In other words I didn´t live Hip Hop I was kind of from the outside
looking in. Now what I wanna say is that a lot of kids around my age felt
the same way like me  - I wasn´t active I was a consumer only . I´m several
years older and wiser now and I wonder whether the situation improved or
changed ... I ain´t in touch with the younger generation now. As far as I´m
concerned the whole thing is still similar . Consume ( buying rap magazines
which tell you which records to buy , buying these records, buying the
newest kicks , whatching rap videos .... ) instead of geting involved ( Goin
out to bomb, rapping seriously , dancing ...) - that´s how I see it. I´m 23
now and went through some trials and tribulatons - eventually I lost all my
(so called) friends so I became a soloist serchin for the truth and for
people who are real to me. I also try to build my Knowledge of Self . I
don´t drink or smoke no more. I freestyle and write rhymes for some years (
mostly for my self but I´m waiting for the right time to come out) and I ´m
pretty much into that 5th Element Of Hip Hop . I think in this New Millenium
things have to change. The Older Generation should teach the Youth more ,
involve the Youth more , be a role model to the Youth, take the Youth more
serious , make the Youth understand that Knowledge is not something wack,
but one of the most important things - the root of everything . The Young
Generation depends on the Older One and the Older Generation depends on the
Younger Generation ... We have to realize that all Humans have to unite in
these last days . To hell with racism . It´s not a Black and  White thing -
it´s a Human Beeing Thing.


Zoltan aka Solid Frame

Peace to the Zulu Nation and all others with open minds,

Bein a representa and supporter of tru hip hop and the Zulu Nation, i'm sad to say that down here in Houston the real meaning of hip hop has been lost by many.  This is mainly due to tha barage of commercializm bein jammed down peoples' throats.  We now have 4 radio stations playin the same commercial B.S. music that is killin the name hip hop for the almighty dolla dolla bill.  You can't listen to the radio wit out hearin slogans like "ALL HIP HOP ALL THE TIME, I JAM THE NEW PARTY 104.9"  or "JAMMIN THE MOST HIP HOP AND R&B, 97.9 THE BOX".  What they really mean is "SOME HIP HOP A LIL BIT OF THE TIME" or "JAMMIN THE SAME HIP HOP AND R&B AS ERYONE ELSE" 

Radio down here is straight destroyin tha tru meanin of hip hop.  Not once have i heard any of these so called "hip hop" radio stations mention anythang of b-boys or graf artists.  HOW CAN U CLAIM TO BE ALL HIP HOP ALL THE TIME WHEN U ONLY REPRESENTA A FRAGMENT OF THE HIP HOP CULTURE!!  I get so fired up erytime i hear one of these slogans or pass by one of tha hundreds of bill boards floodin our streets down here.  Radio stations down here are all fraud and i'm callin 'em all out.  97.9 the Box-FRAUD. Party 104.9 FRAUD. Hot 97.1 FRAUD. Power 97.5 FRAUD.  These stations are all mis-representin what hip hop is by sendin the message that rap music IS hip hop.  When they should be lettin folks know that rap music is a form of MCing which is one branch of hip hop. 

I try to educate as many folks that i can but i'm losin the battle dramatically.  Send in the reinforcements, the ideas, the knowledge or anything that can be of help to save these brainwashed radio junkies from tha corrupt greedy corporations.  HOUSTON NEEDS TO BE SAVED!!


Arenstein Jacob 

I am now 44 years old.  I grew up with the live joint tapes..Funky four.. Zulu Hip Hop (Peace) MC' S..G.L.O.B.E. Pow Wow, D.J. Wiz Kid True Skool Hip Hop, Cold Crush Brothers, Cosmic, Sundance,
 Hutch Hutch,  Bambaataa. Peace.. I can't name em all...  I keep listening over and over to these Tapes even today a favorite  6th Annual Zulu Nation Anniversary.. But there are so many of my favorites.   I baby-sitted some Kids  ages 12 years 14 and 16 year olds last week.
These Kids played a whole bunch of Rap Crap.   These Kids knew all the words to all the tracks,, nothing but cussing and degrading everybody and kill'n mother **@!! 's.    I asked them If I could play some of My Music Hip Hop and they said OK.
They didn't like it.  BECAUSE THEY ARE   BRAIN WASHED!!  These Kids need to be  taught the Elements .  


ayo peace to da zulu nation, i wanna say dat hip hop has gotten meesed up
with all these fakers and fronters! dey needz to keepz it realz and stay
keepin it realz! we don't want to hear about niggaz riches or fame we wanna
hear about wuts really goin on in dis world! all da drama all black ppls iz
goin thru not only dem but da hispanic community! WE as da hispanic
community also love da hip hop culture!! cormega is one of dem real niggaz
and i give him much prob'z all da old school niggaz dat kept it realz! im
not talkin about gangsta sgyt im talkin about da real thug life! which means
"the hate u give little  infants fuck everything" dats something dats been
confused with niggaz sayin dat stand 4 niggaz robbing and stealin! nah it
ain't about dat eitha it's about wut tupac stood 4 and his step father also
stood 4! well im ghos holla at me! peace to da zulu'z just like rza! one

Antonio Garcia 

I believe that hip hop is ready to go back to true school ethics!  The
money that is being generated through hip hop is not enough in my eyes
compared to the influence that hip hop has on the entire world!  I
believe that people in hip hop today have taken on the attitudes of
those in the music industry before hip hop's inclusion in the music
industry!  They are NOT looking for true talent anymore, just what can
sell real quick!  It's a shame that rap artist who come out today have
to release two(2) albums a year to compete, where if you have a good
album with a good strategy, you could have an album serve the public for
two years!  It's disgusting!  It appears as though you must know someone
to get on in this game and that's wack!  I'm still a firm believer in
talent!  I understand marketing and promotion and how it plays into
making money in this game, but I don't believe that you have to stress
those areas so hard if you find true talent!  I pray that we can rise
above the pettiness that sometimes keeps this game down so we all can
get paid!  Remember, rap doesn't even account for 25% of music industry
sales but is gradually becoming the most recognizable art form in the
world!  This means to me that we have allowed ourselves to become
suckers for cheap money!
I pray that we get it right some day!

                                          BIG DAVE   aka

       Name    :   J.D. < JUNGLE DOCTA >
                       the Medicine Man on the mic
       Location:   Columbus,Ohio       
       This is fUnKy J comin outta C-bus Ohio.I started writin rhymes when i was like in the 5th grade...Then it was just love notes and stuff like that....When i got into middle scho0l i was using James Brown,s beats and rappin bout smokin weed and gettin into trouble....Actually i still be rappin some of my middle scho0l           rhymes............                                                                                               .
       See when i was growin into being a man....Always knew.... that skewl...never garunteed me a higher education....So i made this my profession.....Gotta come all goin all out like a pro.... Thats  adjective for professional...Did u know... that this is what Mcin really is.... Speakin yo mind...So i was born into this ish.......Raw talent.....either you are or you ain,t...cause in R.E.A.L <Rhymes Equal Actual Life>
HIPHOP nobody be frontin.....
       So since back in 93 rappin to Cypress Hill on the monkey bars and taggin objects with markers to now Mcin myself and still taggin....I have seen alot in my 10 yrs of HIPHOP.... Been all over the east coast..all over NYC Bx, Brick city aka Newark, freestylin over Bob Marley's I shot the sherrif in the ghettos of Rio De Janeiro...and in all these places i have seen with my own two eyes.. and in my 3rd.. the love and respect of our KULTURE that the true HIPHOPPAZ give back to us....
       The Mass,s also known as the Ignorant ass,s always buyin into the bullish... and biting the bullet....They do not have Overstanding and Knowledge of our KULTURE....They believe HIPHOP is pimpin....husslin....robbin....being in gangs.....killin.....because this is what the Hip Slop artists show it to be....
       I did my research and found out why this KULTURE began....Wich was to unite people in a positive manner.....Come together as ONE for the LOVE of LIFE....and by expressin themselves in a positive demeanor.....while the SOUND of LIFE< MUSIC> was playin and Breakers were breakin....Mcin were rappin....Other did,nt have a clue what was goin on..... But we know it was R.E.A.L HIPHOP !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!    
                                                  Peace & GOD bless to all my HIPHOPPAZ

hip hop is alive and well in san diego california.  The love for the Rap
Expression, Graffitti Art (which is at it's all time height right now, in my
opinion, in san diego), DJing, and Bboying can be seen in different parts of
San Diego.  There are Hip hop shows monthly (which i believe are not enough),
mainly focusing on the MC's and Djs, although you will find B-girls and
B-boys rocking cyphers.  There are Certain clubs that identify with hip hop
musically( djs playing breakbeats and hip hop), you can also find breaking
practices weekly here in san diego.  In the graffiti aspect of  San Diego,
there are all out graffiti wars, between crews, battling to see whose got the
most style and whose more up than most.  And in San Diego, there are a lot of
upcoming DJ's and turntablists all wanting to come up for the love and fame
of hip hop.

A problem, I do see facing SD hip hop is the 5th element, and the reluctance
of most heads out here that don't understand the history or knowledge.  A lot
of the so called "hip hop heads" here, are more attached towards the MC
aspect , and forget about the other elements during these so called "hip hop
shows". Having been to a variety of shows, the representation and
acknowledgement of the dance and graffiti aspects are under represented. 
You'll go to a hip hop show, where Rap is the only thing represented, and
maybe a DJ will just be in the background spinning.  The main focus will be
the MC's.  Its very difficult and painful to see, from my perspective,
because in my opinion, and i could be wrong, the elements in order went :
graffiti, dj's, bboys, and last mcs.

Another problem facing hip hop in my opinion is the seperation and the
groupings of the music.  People talking about the realness of "underground
hip hop", and the fakeness of "commercial hip hop."  You'll have people
taking sides.  It's gotten to the point to where, hmmm.. hip hop music was
based on the party, and now, the so called "real hip hop music" is music
where it's just head nodding music.  It's kinda like a civil war in hip hop,
between the underground, the people that like both, and people that like
commercial rap. Although commercial rap has little to do with the culture and
more about the money, Rap is the expression of the MCs, so it to does have to
deal with hip hop.

but hip hop is a live and well in the southern city on the westcoast.  im
proud to be part of this strong hip hop community.


1520 SEDGWICK AVE. DJS.  (break beat djs that play tribute to Kool Herc)



Peace AHKI
Universal respect and love to all Zulus worldwide. I hope this message finds you in good health.
    Now to get to the point. I live in Jensen Beach, Florida, but I am from Ft. Lauderdale and spent a chunk of my life growing up in Toronto, Ontario and Cincinnati, Ohio. Everywhere I have been, Hip Hop has been something different. Cincinnati was hot. I chilled with cats like Mood and Piakhan and met Hi-Tek there. Talib Kweli is from there. A lot of funk originated there. The city is mad cool and for the most part, everyone gets along. A lot of unity. Midwest flavors are all around, but east coast flavor is major there too. Definitely an ill city. My favorite so far. Even more than New York. I LOVE NY, and have visited a few times when I can afford it. But the unity in Toronto is LARGE! Underground is everywhere. You rarely hear wack shit on the radio, which shows a LOT of support for their local and underground scene. Brass Munk, Citizen Kane, Kardinal Offishall, Nefarious and Maestro hold it down with many others reppin' real Hip Hop. Lots of original material. Plus everyone gets along and sticks together, fans and artists alike. When you see one group, DJ, graf artist or B-Boy you will usually see others hangin' with them. ILL GRAF!!! Toronto is like the whole state of NY rolled up into one city. I would move there if it weren't for my love of the beach and palm trees, tropical settings and my dream of owning a boat that I will live on. Which brings me to Florida.
    My home. There has been a lot of latin influenced flavors down in Lauderdale and Miami, as well as the obvious slow bass, booty and thug music the region is still known for to this day. I love slow old school bass as well as freestyle music (a lot of it reminds me of Planet Patrol and Afrika Bambaataa), but I can't sem to swallow booty music and thug music. Both genres have no skills (with the exception of a notable few joints, like America and Thug Holiday by Trick Daddy), and most thug songs represent the glorification of being ignorant in my opinion. It sems like the more you can't spell or the more drugs and fights you talk about or how many "hoes" you did, the cooler you are. Or how many words you pronounce "southern". We never used to talk that way! When knowledge reigned supreme, we spoke with it. Yeah, we had our slang, and I love that, but we still communicated in a way that said we had a little something in heads. Even today's slang is cool, but we speak of nothing of value most of the time, and we do it with as much bad pronunciation as possible. W-A-C-K!!! I think there is room for SOME of that music in our culture, because it represents a part of our community that should be noticed, but when almost everyone else from down south has the same rhyme styles and subject matter and it's almost all glorification of the negative, I get disgusted to claim the region. Luckily we have and underground scene too. Cats like Draz, 32 oz., Stevie D, Speedy Legs, Chilski (Zulu King), Zulu Red (Zulu King), The Immortals, The Terrorists, Seer Erupt, Ink Heads, Chrome, DJ Immortal (Fader Ballitix), Nitecrawla, Boo-Rock, Floormasters, Choppa Dvise, DJ Khaled, DJ SnoWhite, DJ Craze, Coup D'Ville, Jin, Counterflow Recordings (of Ecko fame), Exotic E (one of the original extended X-Men family), Mother Superia, etc. and sporadic chapters of the UZN are now or have at one time held it down for a while here. But we don't get recognition for what we do. New York and LA don't even notice us. We get skipped a ot when tours go through the rest of the states. The fact that New York doesn't check for us kills me considering a VERY LARGE chunk of Florida's poulation and Hip Hop community are from NY, and I even hear Guru and some members of Wu-Tang have homes here. Fat Joe's clothing company is here (FJ 560 NY!). THE B-BOY PRO-AM IS HERE!!! NY calls on Speedy Legs from here to help run Zulu events in NY! Our own DJ Coup D'Ville is now major in The Bay's underground scene. Busta Rhymes got his most popular hairstyle from DJ SnoWhite! And do I even need to mention DJ Craze? So why don't we get any serious love from cats outside of here. One major problem Florida Hip Hoppers have is unity. We don't, for the most part, stick together. Everyone seems to be out for delf. I have tried to organize a Hip Hop Coalition here, but getting influential heads to come together is like pulling teeth. I even was offered help a few years back from King Lucky Strike to organize it and maybe get Zulu behind it. But it never came together, so I never bothered him with it. Even the Universal Zulu Nation has had a hard time keeping together here. So many phases. In Ft. Lauderdale, we had heads gangbanging under the name of Zulu back in the day (I used to run with them back in like 1986-1998. That's where DJ Exotic E and I got down while looking for a chapter of the Zulu I had learned so much about and loved, but I wasn't with the gangbanging so they called me Father Peace. I quit when I got a small record deal, and they "jumped" me out and almost killed me.) Most of them have grown up and kept the name, doing good things. For some, well...some things never change. North Miami had an awesome chapter that split up (I miss that chapter). And the one I still occasionally hear about in Miami now doesn't seem to be making much noise at all. Zulu Red just became a king and I hope he can bring some things together, as I believe he is a great person and has mad potential. I wish there was a chapter closer to my current home, because I miss the meetings and the knowledge. Anyway, unity has not found us here. I believe that is what slows us down so much. And we need more underground cats and REAL Hip Hop heads coming here to do shows, exhibitions, etc. If Florida had more exposure to the rest of the world, I think heads would feel it more.
    So here is one thing that I propose to help change the situation. I am calling out to the UZN to get more involved in helping us out down here. Plan some big events here like you do up there. Bring the air up there to the beach down here. Help us get some solid chapters going here in a few cities. Strong but peaceful chapters. Get with Zulu Red and help him get something going. Zulu is a major driving force behind Hip Hop, they go hand in hand, so why are we not organizing. And rep for us the way we rep for y'all up there in New York. And many of us (like me) show mad love for the Bay Area scene and Zulus as well. We need some interaction. When heads come to Atlanta (like Public Enemy currently) take the extra step to come to Miami or West Palm. The more we rep real hip hop, the less they can stop it. It is infectious. But everyone wants what's popular down here. Let's make Real Hip Hop popular, like it was once before (Fresh Fest, Run DMC/Beastie Boys, etc.). The UZN has the most worldwide unity of all in the Hip Hop community. I know Florida could learn something from that. But it's up to us to make it happen and get it crackin'.
Peace and blessings,

peace to all u.z.n. worldwide.

this is zulu enok replying back to question about the hiphop culture. well here is my views. the hiphop culture is not losing itself its alternative side(rap) has corrupted  the eyes of the streets. there's barely any knowledge given and the only elements i see represented these days on videos are deejays and the mc's. where's the grafitti at and the breakers and the most important knowledge, wisdom, overstanding. the only artists i see doing the right thing is rappers like:

nas,tony touch,fat joe,pharoahe monch,styles p, and others who speak the real deep lyrics and have the elements as a power point. i see the nation of hiphop falling cuz of the failure of most artists to bring upon the real things. i've been into hiphop for more then 14 yrs now. and saw the major change throughout the 90's. alot of my peoples who were into to it call it wack now, cuz all artists talk about now is girls, money, and how good they look, if not that there teaching young minds more and more about sex,drugs,and how to be a gangsta. excuse my language but who the "fuck" is a gangsta in this nation of hiphop. where the hell did that shit come from. gangsta's are mafia members and there hasn't been a real gangsta in like 20 yrs. i think that rappers of today are trying to be to hard and tryin to be like others to much. there's no leadership any more, no science, no real poetry. just garbage and ignorance, money blinds the eyes with the curse of the pyramid signs, rappers have made fools of themselves by talking just madd shit and trying to be  a bad boy. this is why most real heads stick to the underground hiphop because that is where the elements stand strong at. the industry has infected many minds so far, we need to fight with strength in numbers, and with our minds...



Did Hip Hop start in the South Bronx or West Bronx?

Hip Hop DJing had no name at the beginning, but the DJ element started in the West Bronx, by a DJ ,who name was Kool DJ Herc.

Hip Hop as a Culture was started and named by Afrika Bambaataa in the South Bronx. It is Afrika Bambaataa who pull the 4 elements together (DJing, B-Boys, B-Girls, MCing (Rap),and Grafitti all together and gave The 5th Element which was Knowledge,which later he added Knowledge,Culture and Overstanding which holds all of it together.

Did Afrika Bambaataa started DJing after Kool DJ Herc?

Afrika Bambaataa started DJing at a very young age as well as giving numerous parties in the Southeast Bronx. Afrika Started DJing in the year 1970 playing with home turntables in a place called The Old Center in Bronx River Houses. He also had played with his mentor Kool DJ Dee, Tyrone and MC JoJo and Lovebug Starski, Disco King Mario, Tex DJ Hollywood throughout the years way before their was a name called Hip Hop. He also played on Pete DJ Jones System when he use to come and play in the Bronx River section.

Afrika Bambaataa, Disco King Mario, Kool Dj Dee, Tyrone, Lovebug Starski, JoJo, Tex DJ Hollywood all came from The Nortorius Black Spades Streetgang and it is a fact that Afrika Bambaataa and Disco King Mario had a Lockdown on the whole Southeast Bronx, where you had to get permission from them to play in any of the areas they had fully controll of. If you was not down with Bams Zulu Nation or their Family group Marios Chuck Chuck City Crew, then much problems would come your way.

Was the word Hip Hop out before there was a Culture called Hip Hop?

It is said that LoveBug Starski, Keith Cowboy and DJ Hollywood both was using it in their raps when Disco Rap was the big thing of the time. So Hip Hop the word has roots with the MCs (Master of Cermonies) of the Disco era, but it is a Fact that Afrika Bambaataa's Whole Zulu Nation are the one who flip the name and made it a Culture. And all the other DJs who came after Kool DJ Herc, Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmaster Flash fell into the Hip Hop Culture.

Was Grandmaster Flash from Bams Area?

Flash who came some years after Bam was from another part of the SouthBronx and he gave to Hip Hop Culture the quickmix DJ style as well as his MCs gave more of the rhyming style of Hip Hop. Bam gave more of  the music of Hip Hop, a visionary to spread the music throughout the Tri -State area and then the world and both Flash and Bam started adding electronic instruments to their sets like beat boxes and synthesizers, which even made the parties more funkier. The same can be said for another great Zulu Nation DJ by the name of Grandmixer DST, later known as DXT.

What are some of the early known spots in the 1970s where Hip Hop was played at?










Who are the first original Female Pioneers of Hip Hop?

Lisa Lee, Sha Rock, Queen Kenya, Paula & Tonya Winley Debbie Deb, Mercedez Ladies, Pebbly Poo, Sequence

Who was the first Female DJ in Hip Hop Culture?

The first Hip Hop DJ was Zulu Queen Wanda Dee. Then Jazzy Joyce

What are the names of  other DJ's and M.C.s who were in the early years of Hip Hop Culture?

 DJ Red Alert, Afrika Zambu & The Soulsonic Force, Afrika Islam & Funk Machine, Afrika Issac, Disco King Mario & The Chuck City Crew, DJ Nicky Dee, DJ Ronie Ron, DJ Desie,  Cosmic Force, DJ Kenny Ken, Mean Gene,Grand Wizzard Theodore & The Fanstastic Romantic MC's, DJ Breakout, DJ Baron & The Funky Four Plus 1 More, Tex DJ Hollywood, Grand Mixer D.S.T & The Infinity Rappers, Love Squidd & The Devastating 4, DJ Charlie Chase,DJ Tony Tone & The Cold Crush Brothers, DJ Casanova Fly, Sponnie G & The Trecherous 3, Dougie Fresh & The Get Fresh Krew, Easy LG, DJ Superman, DJ Sinbad, Queen Kenya, Jazzy 5, DJSmokey & The Smoke a Trons,  DJ Supreme, DJ Darryl C & The Crash Crew, DJ Coke LA Rock, Timmy Smalls, DJ Cool Clyde,DJ Lightening Lance, MC Lil Sha Rock, Dr. Rock & The Force MC's, DJ White Flash, Disco Whiz,DJ Whiz Kid, Wanda Dee, Clark Kent, Kool Klye The Starchild, Solo Sounds, Kool DJ AJ, Kurtis Blow, Deadly Sin Crew, Force 5 MC's, Disco 4, Mean Machine, Disco Twins, T-Ski Valley, Ultimate 4 MC's, Fearless 4, DJ Crazy Eddie, Sequence, Pambaataa, DJ Hollywood, The Hypnotizing 5 MC's, Lil Theodore, DJ Jimmy Jaz, Donald Dee, Disco Bee,  DJ Sisco, DJ Kevy Kev Rockwell, PT Disco, Collins Brothers, Double Trouble, Rob The Gold, Rammelizee, DJ Ruddy Tee, CD3, Death Committe, Spyder D, Supreme Team, Fantastic 3, Awesome 4,

What and where was the first HIP HOP SHOW ON TV.

The first hip hop show on television history was not in the USA but was in fact in the

country of France called Hip Hop and its host was a guy name Sydney who also was the

first Leader of The Universal Zulu Nation of France, before Queen Candy took over and

made  an army of Zulus in France. The first MTV Hip Hop show call Yo MTV Raps did not

start in USA but started in England first with Sophie Bramey who is know as Africa Lakoum of

The Universal Zulu Nation of France, which later on Fab Five Freddy took over the spot

in the USA and became the show of all the world to see on MTV.(YO MTV Raps.  So it was Universal Zulu Nation members who first brought Hip Hop to T.V.



Was Yo MTV Raps the first Hip Hop television show in the USA?

No! the first show was Video Music Box with host Ralph McDaniel's






IN THIS ISSUE of the highly irregular "CAN'T STOP" NEWSLETTER:

A preview from the forthcoming issue of URB
On newsstands May 28
Featuring never-before seen photos and other cool sh*t...

It was like any other year in hip-hop: DJs scratched, MCs rapped, graffiti
writers burned, and B-boys battled. But 1982 was hip-hopıs most historic
year because it was the first time New York Cityıs ghetto youth shocked the
world. What made 1982 so dope?


As the ı70s ended, what would become known as hip-hop was a waning Bronx
trend. The young people who had nurtured the block parties, spun on their
backs on the concrete or thrilled to DJ and MC exploits were growing up and
out of the scene they had created. They wanted to dress up and experience
more sophisticated forms of escape

GRANDMASTER FLASH: Bam had his area, Flash had his area, DJ Breakout had his
area, Herc had his area. Then our audience was getting older. I was
wondering where my core audience was going. They wanted to move on and wear
a dress or a suit.

JAZZY JAY: Yeah, the Great Hip-Hop Drought. People started growing up. You
ainıt gonna go into no high school gymnasium to party no more. It was a
terrible time. Iım like, hip-hop is gonna die like this? Then, the rebirth.
We started going downtown into the clubs.

GRANDMASTER FLASH: The first person to hit the downtown scene was Bam, and
when Bam hit it, shortly thereafter I came down.

AFRIKA BAMBAATAA: The first people who invited me downtown were Fab 5
Freddy, [ and downtown club promoters] Michael Holman and Kool Lady Blue. I
started at a place called the Jefferson, moved on to the Mudd Club, Negril,
Danceteria, the Peppermint Lounge.

FAB 5 FREDDY: I was thinking about how to make moves into the art world, but
still keep the integrity of what graffiti is. And that led to me hooking up
with people in the art scene in downtown New York. I met Blondie.. That also
led me to meet Jean-Michel Basquiat and Charlie Ahearn.

GRANDMASTER FLASH: Fab was like one of the town criers. He would come into
the hood where whites wouldnıt come and then go downtown to where whites
would go, and say, OListen thereıs some music these cats is playing, man
itıs hot shit, you gotta book these guys.ı So I got my first taste of
playing for an audience that wasnıt typically black, you know, which
broadened my horizons musically.

KOOL LADY BLUE: Negril was a reggae club. It was down in the basement,
pretty dark, little club. At first it started off as mostly my friends,
which consisted of people like the Sex Pistols and the Clash. And I kind of
turned them on to hip-hop.

AFRIKA BAMBAATAA: It was mostly punk, and everybody was excited at first
because they was hearing about this black kid in the Bronx that was playing
all of this type of music to all of this type of people.

JAZZY JAY: We was schooling them on our artform. Bam would put these breaks
on and drive them wild and then Iıd get on the turntables and start cutting
shit up and theyıd be losing their minds. MCs get on, that was it. B-boys
take the floor, it was like yo!

CRAZY LEGS: The rap scene wasnıt blowing up yet. The visual element of
were the spectacle.


At the opening of 1982, the streets were changing. As the Reagan recession
deepened, violence was flaring back up in the subway yards and at street
parties. But at the same time, hip-hop was destroying years of racial
segregation. Graffiti stormed the art world by storm, B-boying ca[tivated
the media, breakbeat mixing made downtown clubgoers dance again, and rap was
on the verge of exploding. By summer, Afrika Bambaataaıs "Planet Rock" and
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Fiveıs "The Message" grabbed ears all over
the world, summing up the spirit of ı82.

IZ THE WIZ: 1982, in my opinion, was the beginning of the end for graffiti.
Thatıs why I did as many pieces as I could during that time period. Just
Ocause I knew it was the last hurrah.

SPAR ONE: The whole war mentalityBR things remember I when> getting really violent.

KOOL LADY BLUE: It was the Reagan era and Nicaragua and talk of war and
nuclear weapons. But then there was this whole thing going on in New York
where it was the youth culture getting together in unity and peace and
having fun. No segregation and everyone joining together. Just the opposite
of what was going on politically.

CHARLIE AHEARN: The racial thing was a big deal. Mixing a lot of black,
Puerto Rican and white people downtown altogether is very combustible,
because people are coming from very different types of areas.

FABEL: White folks--that was new to me. Seeing their reaction, like yo
theyıre digging it! We fed off of the crowd a lot--to get them hyped was
half of the reason we did it. Well, at least a quarter. Three-fourths were
for more selfish reasons. Like, thereıs some fine girls around here, yo!

ZEPHYR: Everyoneıs trying to hustle something. Someone had an angle, someone
was like, can I take your picture, can I make a movie about you, can I do a
series of shows at The Kitchen with you, can I write an article in the
Village Voice?

DOZE: Kool Lady Blue took the reins from there, who was friends with Fab
Five Freddy, who was friends with Patti Astor, who gave me my first show at
the Fun Gallery, where I met Rich Colicchio from 51X Gallery, then I met
Jean-Michel Basquiat through Toxic, my boy up in the Bronx, who had done the
Fashion Moda thing. So everything was like--click-click-click!--locking into

HENRY CHALFANT: 1982 was really the watershed year. Futura and Crash and
Rock Steady are going downtown. Charlieıs making "Wild Style", Tony and I
are making "Style Wars", Marty and I are working on "Subway Art". All that
was happening...

Do you want more, including "Wild Style", The Roxy, hip-hop's first European
tour, and the beats of '82? Just check URB this month and "Can't Stop, Won't
Stop", the whole damn printed thing on St. Martin's Press, next year.

Much appreci-love to all who helped make this possible: AFRIKA BAMBAATAA,
SHELBY MEADE, and the entire URB fam!

Chicago Hip Hop History


Black Nationalism and Rap Music


Popular Music and Society: Hip-Hop, Rap, and Repression in France and in the United States.  

93.04.04: The Evolution of Rap Music in the United States                                       

Berlin Graffiti Sux: Graffiti on trains in Berlin
Wildstylz German Hip Hop Magazine

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